Category: Beliefs
Fatwa#: 5392
Asked Country: United States

Answered Date: May 15,2002

Title: 1) is their claim valid? Please provide justification of AbuBakar(RA), Omar(RA), Utman(RA) being the 1st,2nd and 3rd kholifa of islam. 2) Imam Abu Hanifa (RA) studied under their Imam Jafar??

Question

1.shia claim Ali(RA) to be the rightful 1st kholifa of Islam based on one of this hadith ?Al- Imam Ahmad ibn Hanbal as narrated by Zayd ibn Arqam: We got down with the Messenger of Allah (s3w) in a valley called Khumm valley, and he ordered congregational prayer to be held, performing it in meridional heat. Then, while being shaded by a garment over a brown tree, from the sun, the Messenger of Allah (s3w) addressed us saying: "Aren't you aware, or don't you give witness that I have more right on every believer than he himself has? They said: Yes. Then he said: of whoever i am his master (mawla) Ali also is his master. Ya Allah, befriend whoever befriends him and be the enemy of whoever is hostile to him." Based on this hadith, is their claim valid? Please provide justification of AbuBakar(RA), Omar(RA), Utman(RA) being the 1st,2nd and 3rd kholifa of islam. 2.Shias claim that Imam Abu Hanifa (RA) studied under their Imam Jafar. Is it true or false? Please elaborate.

Answer

Also+refer+below%0D%0A%0D%0ARegarding+Imam+Abu+Hanifah%27s+allegedly+having+studied+under+Imam+Ja%27far%0D%0Aas-Sadiq%2C+please+be+informed+as+follows%3A%0D%0A%0D%0AImam+Abu+Hanifah+was+the+pupil+and+intellectual+successor+of+his+mentor%2C%0D%0AHammad+ibn+Abi+Sulayman%2C+who+was+the+successor+to+Ibrahim+an-Nakha%27i%2C+who%0D%0Awas+the+successor+to+his+uncle+%27Alqamah+ibn+Qays+an-Nakha%27i%2C+who+was+the%0D%0Asuccessor+to+Sayyiduna+%27Abdullah+ibn+Mas%27ud%2C+who+was+sent+as+a+teacher+to%0D%0Athe+city+Kufah+by+Amir+al-Mu%27minin+Sayyiduna+%27Umar+ibn+al-Khattab.+This%0D%0Achain+of+intellectual+descent+is+known+to+anyone+knowledgeable+of+the%0D%0Alegislative+history+of+Islam.%0D%0A%0D%0AIn+fact%2C+Imam+Abu+Hanifah+held+his+dicourses+at+the+very+same+place+in+the%0D%0Amasjid+of+Kufah+where+Ibn+Mas%27ud+used+to+teach.+This+teaching+circle+was%0D%0Apassed+down+generation+after+generation%2C+by+the+men+whose+names+you+have%0D%0Ajust+read%3A+From+Ibn+Mas%27ud+to+%27Alqamah%3B+from+%27Alqamah+to+Ibrahim%3B+from%0D%0AIbrahim+to+Hammad%3B+and+ultimately+from+Hammad+to+Abu+Hanifah%2C+after+whom+it%0D%0Awas+occupied+by+three+of+his+students+successively%3A+firstly+Zufar+ibn%0D%0AHudhayl%3B+then+Abu+Yusuf%3B+and+then+Muhammad+ibn+al-Hasan.%0D%0A%0D%0ANow%2C+regarding+the+link+between+Abu+Hanifah+and+Ja%27far+as-Sadiq%2C+you+need+to%0D%0Akeep+in+mind+the+following%3A%0D%0A%0D%0AFIRSTLY%0D%0AImam+Abu+Hanifah+was+born+in+the+year+80+AH%0D%0AImam+Ja%27far+as-Sadiq+was+born+in+the+year+83+AH%0D%0A%0D%0AIn+other+words%2C+not+only+were+they+contemporaries%3B+but+Abu+Hanifah+was+3%0D%0Ayears+older+than+Ja%27far+as-Sadiq.%0D%0A%0D%0ASECONDLY%0D%0AImam+Abu+Hanifah%27s+education+took+place+in+Kufah%2C+in+the+school+originally%0D%0Aestablished+by+Ibn+Mas%27ud.+Like+other+%27ulama+of+his+time%2C+he+used+to+go+to%0D%0AHijaz+for+Hajj%2C+and+passing+through+Madinah%2C+he+used+to+benefit+from+the%0D%0Aknowledge+of+eminent+men+of+learning%2C+such+as+the+father+of+Imam+Ja%27far%0D%0Aas-Sadiq%2C+namely+Imam+Muhammad+al-Baqir.+Many+of+the+ahadith+he+narrates%0D%0Afrom+Imam+Muhammad+al-Baqir+are+documented+in+the+books+of+his+pupils+Abu%0D%0AYusuf+and+Muhammad+ibn+al-Hasan.%0D%0A%0D%0ATHIRDLY%0D%0AIt+is+true+that+Imam+Abu+Hanifah+does+narrate+some+ahadith+from+Imam+Ja%27far%0D%0Aas-Sadiq.+But+that+was+according+to+the+habit+of+the+%27ulama+to+narrate+from%0D%0Aeven+their+contemporaries.+If+that+alone+is+to+be+taken+as+evidence+that%0D%0AImam+Abu+Hanifah+%22studied%22+under+Imam+Ja%27far+as-Sadiq%2C+then+we+will+be+bound%0D%0Ato+conclude+that+Imam+Ja%27far+as-Sadiq+similarly+learnt+from+people+other%0D%0Athan+his+father%2C+such+as+Ibn+Shihab+az-Zuhri%2C+%27Ata+ibn+Abi+Rabah%2C+%27Urwah+ibn%0D%0AZubaur+and+Muhammad+ibn+al-Munkadir.+Imam+Ja%27far+as-Sadiq+has+narrated%0D%0Ahadith+from+all+of+these+men%2C+and+even+others+besides+them.+%28Tahdhib%0D%0Aal-Kamal+vol.+5+p.+75%29%0D%0A%0D%0AFOURTHLY%0D%0AIn+the+year+132+the+Abbasids+came+to+power%2C+having+ousted+the+Umayyads.+Abu%0D%0AHanifah+was+then+52+years+of+age.+The+Abbasid+khalifah+Abu+Ja%27far+al-Mansur%0D%0Awanted+Abu+Hanifah+as+his+chief+justice%2C+which+post+he+refused.+In+order+to%0D%0Aescape+the+vengeance+of+the+khalifah%2C+Abu+Hanifah+betook+himself+to+the%0D%0AHijaz+where+he+spent+the+next+2+years.+It+is+in+terms+of+this+sojourn+in+the%0D%0AHijaz+that+he+is+reported+to+have+said%2C+%22Were+it+not+for+the+2+years%2C+Nu%27man%0D%0A%28i.e.+Abu+Hanifah%29+would+have+been+destroyed%22.+Creative+Shi%27i+imaginations%0D%0Awould+have+us+believe+that+what+he+actually+meant+thereby+was+that+it+was%0D%0Aduring+this+period+that+he+gained+his+knowledge+at+the+feet+of+Imam+Ja%27far%0D%0Aas-Sadiq.+The+absurdity+of+this+can+be+seen+from+the+fact+that+by+that+time%0D%0Ahe+was+already+so+famous+as+a+man+of+learning%2C+that+he+was+sought+by+the%0D%0Akhalifah+as+the+chief+justice.+Apart+from+that%2C+he+was%2C+as+already+shown%2C%0D%0Aover+50+years+of+age.%0D%0A%0D%0AFIFTHLY%0D%0AThere+is+a+famous+story+in+circulation+about+Imam+Ja%27far+as-Sadiq+posing%0D%0Acertain+questions+to+Imam+Abu+Hanifah+regarding+the+use+of+Qiyas+%28analogy%29.%0D%0AYou+should+be+informed+that+the+story+appears+in+this+form+in+Shi%27i+books%0D%0Asuch+as+al-Kafi.+In+the+Sunni+literature+it+appears+with+significant%0D%0Achanges.%0D%0A%0D%0AFirst+of+all%2C+the+discussion+is+not+between+Abu+Hanifah+and+Ja%27far+as-Sadiq%2C%0D%0Abut+between+Abu+Hanifah+and+Muhammad+al-Baqir.%0D%0A%0D%0ASecondly%2C+the+story+goes+as+follows%3A%0D%0A%0D%0AAl-Baqir+asks+Abu+Hanifah+if+he+is+the+one+who+is+changing+the+Deen+of+his%0D%0A%28al-Baqir%27s%29+grandfather+%28Rasulullah+sallallahu+%60alayhi+wasallam%29+through%0D%0Athe+use+of+Qiyas.+Abu+Hanifah+denies+that+he+is+changing+the+Deen.+In+order%0D%0Ato+demonstrate+the+falsehood+of+the+rumours%2C+he+then+goes+on+his+knees+in%0D%0Afront+of+Imam+al-Baqir+and+uses+the+comparison+between+%281%29+the+share+of+a%0D%0Aman+and+a+woman+in+the+spoils+of+war%3B+%282%29+fasting+and+prayer+with+regard+to%0D%0Aa+woman+in+menstruation+having+to+pay+in+the+former+and+not+the+latter%3B+%283%29%0D%0Aurine+and+semen+in+respect+of+the+method+of+purification+for+either+one.%0D%0A%0D%0AAfter+this+lucid+demonstration+of+his+usage+of+Qiyas+only+where+there+is+no%0D%0Atextual+evidence%2C+and+strictly+adhering+to+the+authority+of+text+where+it%0D%0Aexists%2C+Imam+Muhammad+al-Baqir+stands+up+and+kisses+Imam+Abu+Hanifah+on+his%0D%0Aforehead.+%28Manaqib+Abi+Hanifah+by+al-Kardari%2C+p.+99%29%0D%0A%0D%0AIt+was+only+later+that+the+Shi%27ah+would+adapt+the+story+to+suit+their+own%0D%0Aparticular+needs.%0D%0A%0D%0AShaykh+Taha+Karaan%0D%0ADarul+Uloom+al-Arabiyya+al-Islaamiyyah%2C+Western+Cape%0D%0A%0D%0AThe+event+of+Ghadeer+Khum+in+Quran%2C+Sunnah+%26+History%0D%0ABy+Seif+%0D%0A%0D%0AAs+you+know+that+the+Shi%60a+say+that+Ali+%28rah%29+is+the+one+who+should+have+been+the+first+khalifa+and+not+Abu+Bakr+%28rah%29+%28or+Umar+%28rah%29+or+Uthman+%28rah%29%29.%A0+They+bring+some+evidences+from+the+Sunni+books+%28Bukhari%2C+Muslim%2C..%29+and+one+of+them+is+the+hadeeth+of+Ghadeer+Khumm.+%0D%0A%0D%0ABefore+we+start%2C+we+should+Say+that+Ali+%28rah%29+is+the+husband+of+the+daughter+of+the+prophet+%28peace+be+upon+him%29%2C+Fatima+%28rah%2C+the+best+woman+of+the+people+of+the+Jannah%29%2C+he+is+the+cousin+of+the+prophet+%28peace+be+upon+him%29%2C+and+he+is+the+fourth+of+the+rightly-guided+khalifahs+and+his+qualities+are+all+well+known+to+us.%A0+%0D%0A%0D%0AHowever%2C+we+are+not+talking+about+the+qualities+of+Ali+%28rah%29%2C+because+we+all+know+it.%A0+We+are+discussing+whether+or+not+the+hadeeth+of+Ghadeer+Khumm+is+evidence+that+Ali+should+have+been+the+first+khalifa.+%0D%0A%0D%0AWe+start+by+reading+the+hadeeth+from+Sahih+Muslim+Book+031%2C+Number+5920%3A+%0D%0AYazid+b.+Hayyan+reported%2C+I+went+along+with+Husain+b.+Sabra+and+%27Umar+b.+Muslim+to+Zaid+b.+Arqam+and%2C+as+we+sat+by+his+side%2C+Husain+said+to+him%3A+Zaid.+you+have+been+able+to+acquire+a+great+virtue+that+you+saw+Allah%27s+Messenger+%28may+peace+be+upon+him%29+listened+to+his+talk%2C+fought+by+his+side+in+%28different%29+battles%2C+offered+prayer+behind+me.+Zaid%2C+you+have+in+fact+earned+a+great+virtue.+Zaid%2C+narrate+to+us+what+you+heard+from+Allah%27s+Messenger+%28may+peace+be+upon+him%29.+He+said%3A+I+have+grown+old+and+have+almost+spent+my+age+and+I+have+forgotten+some+of+the+things+which+I+remembered+in+connection+with+Allah%27s+Messenger+%28may+peace+be+upon+him%29%2C+so+accept+whatever+I+narrate+to+you%2C+and+which+I+do+not+narrate+do+not+compel+me+to+do+that.+He+then+said%3A+One+day+Allah%27s+Messenger+%28may+peace+be+upon+him%29+stood+up+to+deliver+sermon+at+a+watering+place+known+as+Khumm+situated+between+Mecca+and+Medina.+He+praised+Allah%2C+extolled+Him+and+delivered+the+sermon+and.+exhorted+%28us%29+and+said%3A+Now+to+our+purpose.+O+people%2C+I+am+a+human+being.+I+am+about+to+receive+a+messenger+%28the+angel+of+death%29+from+my+Lord+and+I%2C+in+response+to+Allah%27s+call%2C+%28would+bid+good-bye+to+you%29%2C+but+I+am+leaving+among+you+two+weighty+things%3A+the+one+being+the+Book+of+Allah+in+which+there+is+right+guidance+and+light%2C+so+hold+fast+to+the+Book+of+Allah+and+adhere+to+it.+He+exhorted+%28us%29+%28to+hold+fast%29+to+the+Book+of+Allah+and+then+said%3A+The+second+are+the+members+of+my+household+I+remind+you+%28of+your+duties%29+to+the+members+of+my+family.+He+%28Husain%29+said+to+Zaid%3A+Who+are+the+members+of+his+household%3F+Aren%27t+his+wives+the+members+of+his+family%3F+Thereupon+he+said%3A+His+wives+are+the+members+of+his+family+%28but+here%29+the+members+of+his+family+are+those+for+whom+acceptance+of+Zakat+is+forbidden.+And+he+said%3A+Who+are+they%3F+Thereupon+he+said%3A+%27Ali+and+the+offspring+of+%27Ali%2C+%27Aqil+and+the+offspring+of+%27Aqil+and+the+offspring+of+Ja%27far+and+the+offspring+of+%27Abbas.+Husain+said%3A+These+are+those+for+whom+the+acceptance+of+Zakat+is+forbidden.+Zaid+said%3A+Yes.+%0D%0A%0D%0AThis+hadeeth+is+also+narrated+in+other+books%3A+Tirmithi%2C+Ahmed%2C+an-nasai%2C+al-hakem+and+others.+Almost+all+the+links+are+for+pages+in+Arabic.+I+will+translate+the+important+points+inshaAllah+as+I+go+along.+%0D%0A%0D%0AMosnad+of+Ahmed%3A+%0D%0AIbn+Namir+told+us+that+Abd+Al-Malik+%28Ibn+Abi-Sulayman%29+told+us+according+to+Attia+Al-%60ufi+who+said%3A+I+asked+Zayd+Ibn+Arqam+and+I+told+him+that+some+people+told+me+a+hadeeth+according+to+you+about+Ali+%28rah%29+in+the+day+of+Ghadeer+Khumm+and+I+want+to+hear+it+from+you.+So+Zayd+said%3A+You+people+of+Iraq%2C+you+have+what+you+have.+I+told+him%3A+Do+not+worry+about+me.+He+said%3A+Yes+we+were+in+Al-Juhfa+and+the+prophet%28peace+be+upon+him%29+came+to+us+holding+the+hands+of+Ali+%28rah%29+and+said%3A+O+people+don%27t+you+know+that+I+am+with+the+believers+from+their+selves.+They+said%3A+Yes.+He+said%3A+.%A0+%5BAttia%5D+said%3A+Did+he+say%3A+%28O+Allah%3A+Befriend+whosoever+befriends+him+and+be+the+enemy+of+whosoever+is+hostile+to+him%29.+%5BZayd%5D+said%3A+I+told+you+as+I+heard+it.+%0D%0A%0D%0AThe+saying+%22man+kuntu+mawlah+fa+Ali+mawlah%22+is+correct+and+strong.+%0D%0A%0D%0AThe+addition+%2C+%22O+Allah%3A+Befriend+whosoever+befriends+him+and+be+the+enemy+of+whosoever+is+hostile+to+him%22+is+also+correct%2C+albeit+weaker.+%0D%0AHowever%2C+the+scholars+of+hadeeth+classify+any+extra+additions+as+and+hence+we+will+not+talk+about.+We+will+only+talk+about+the+authentic+versions+shown+above.+%0D%0A%0D%0AThis+hadeeth+is+used+to+prove+that+Ali+is+the+khalifa.+The+Shia+says+that+%22mawla%22+means+%22wali%22+%28leader%29+and+hence+this+incident+means+that+the+prophet+is+telling+the+Muslims+that+Ali+is+the+next+khalifa.+%0D%0A%0D%0AThis+is+their+point+regarding+this+hadeeth.%A0+The+difference%2C+then%2C+is+the+meaning+of+%22man+kuntu+mawlah%2C+fa+Ali+mawlah%22.+The+shi%60ah+says+that+it+means+%22man+kuntu+waleeh%2C+fa+Ali+waleeh%22.+The+Sunnah+says+that+it+means+love+and+close+relation.+Muwalat+is+the+opposite+of+Mu%60adat.+The+proof+comes+from+the+first+addition%3A+%22oh+Allah+waali+man+walaah+wa+%60adi+man+%60adaah%22.+%28O+Allah+befriend+whosover+befriends+him+and+be+the+enemy+of+whosoever+is+hostile+to+him%29.+So+we+are+talking+about+muwalah+and+mu%60adat+%28love+and+enmity%29.+It+is+about+the+love+of+the+people+to+Ali+%28rah%29.+%0D%0A%0D%0ABefore+we+talk+about+that%2C+let+us+talk+about+why+the+prophet+said+so.%A0+The+Shi%60ah+claim+that+the+prophet+%28+peace+be+upon+him+%29+stopped+people+in+this+place+in+the+hot+weather+and+they+say+that+their+number+was+more+than+100+thousand+and+that+this+was+the+place+where+all+the+people+of+Hajj+were+gathered+and+the+main+reason+is+that+the+prophet+%28+peace+be+upon+him+%29+wanted+to+tell+the+people+%22man+kuntu+mawlah+fa+Ali+mawlah%22+in+addition+to+their+additions.+%0D%0A%0D%0AThe+reason+for+this+hadeeth+is+as+follows%3A+%0D%0ARead+this+hadeeth+from+Bukhari+volume+5%2C+Book+59+Number+637%3A+%0D%0ANarrated+Buraida%3A+The+Prophet+sent+%27Ali+to+Khalid+to+bring+the+Khumus+%28of+the+booty%29+and+I+hated+Ali%2C+and+%27Ali+had+taken+a+bath+%28after+a+sexual+act+with+a+slave-girl+from+the+Khumus%29.+I+said+to+Khalid%2C+%22Don%27t+you+see+this+%28i.e.+Ali%29%3F%22+When+we+reached+the+Prophet+I+mentioned+that+to+him.+He+said%2C+%22O+Buraida%21+Do+you+hate+Ali%3F%22+I+said%2C+%22Yes.%22+He+said%2C+%22Do+you+hate+him%2C+for+he+deserves+more+than+that+from+the+Khumlus.%22+%0D%0AIn+other+narrations+%28al-tirmithi+and+ahmed%29%2C+in+addition+to+the+above%2C+the+prophet+said%3A+%22O+buraida+man+kuntu+mawlah+fa+Ali+mawlah%22+%0D%0ASo+Ali+took+one+of+the+slaves+named+Waseefa+as+his+slave+and+then+after+having+sexual+act+with+her%2C+he+was+taking+a+bath.%A0+Buraida+%28rah%29+became+angry.+He+thought+why+would+Ali+take+one+of+the+slaves+for+himself.+So+he+mentioned+this+to+the+prophet%28peace+be+upon+him%29.+%0D%0AAl-bayhaqi+narrates+from+Abu+sa%27eed+that+Ali+prevented+them+from+riding+the+camels+of+the+sadaqa+that+they+acquired.+He+then+made+a+person+to+be+their+leader+and+went+to+the+prophet%28peace+be+upon+him%29.+When+Ali+came+back%2C+he+found+that+their+leader+gave+them+permission+to+ride+the+camels.+When+Ali+saw+that%2C+he+became+angry+and+he+blamed+the+leader.+%28In+another+narration%2C+it+mentions+that+they+were+new+clothes+that+Ali+prevented+them+from+wearing+but+they+wear+them+despite+his+orders%29.+Abu+sa%27eed+said+that+when+we+went+back+to+madina%2C+we+mentioned+to+the+prophet+the+harshness+that+we+have+seen+from+Ali.+The+prophet+said%3A+Stop+O+saad+ibn+Malik%3A+O+By+Allah+I+have+known+that+he+is+done+good+for+the+sake+of+Allah.+%28Ibn+Katheer+says+that+this+hadeeth+is+on+the+conditions+of+Al-Nasaie%29+%0D%0AIbn+Katheer+said+that+the+people+in+the+army+started+to+talk+about+Ali+%28rah%29+because+he+prevented+them+from+riding+the+camels+and+took+back+the+new+clothes+that+they+acquired.+Because+of+that%2C+after+the+prophet+%28+peace+be+upon+him+%29+was+done+with+the+Hajj+and+while+returning+back+to+Madina%2C+he+stopped+to+explain+to+the+people+how+some+of+the+qualities+of+Ali+and+stress+the+closeness+of+Ali+to+him+and+the+importance+of+loving+Ali.%A0+He+did+so+to+remove+what+was+in+many+of+the+hearts+of+some+of+the+people+against+Ali.+%0D%0AThat%27s+why+the+prophet+%28+peace+be+upon+him+%29+delayed+talking+about+this+topic+until+they+were+close+to+Madina+and+he+didn%27t+talk+about+it+in+Makkah+during+the+Hajj.+On+the+day+of+Arafa%2C+the+prophet+%28+peace+be+upon+him+%29+spoke+to+the+people+and+and+he+never+mentioned+this+topic+at+all.+After+he+finished+his+sermon%2C+he+said+%22Did+I+convey+the+message%22+and+the+people+said+%22Yes%22+then+he+said+%22O+Allah+be+my+witness%22.+%0D%0AWhy+did+he+delay+the+topic+till+after+Hajj%3F+Because+this+topic+is+only+of+concern+to+the+people+of+Madina+because+those+who+talked+about+Ali+were+from+Madina+as+they+were+the+ones+who+went+with+Ali+to+the+battle.+He+talked+about+it+in+a+place+called+ghadeer+khumm+in+a+place+called+Ju%3Ffa%2C+which+is+about+250+km+from+Makkah.%A0+%0D%0A%28See+map%3A+%0D%0A%0D%0A%A0%0D%0AA+simple+look+at+the+map+is+e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+me+know+and+inshaAllah+I+can+delve+more+into+it.%A0+The+Sunni+view+is+that+the+hadeeth+of+ghadir+khum+has+nothing+to+do+with+who+the+leader+is+after+the+prophet%28peace+be+upon+him%29.%A0+%0D%0AIt+means%2C+however%2C+that+Ali+is+loved+by+the+prophet+%28peace+be+upon+him%29+and+that+we+should+love+him+and+give+nusrah+to+him.+May+Allah+%28swt%29+join+us+with+Ali+and+the+rest+of+the+companions+%28may+Allah+be+pleased+with+them+all%29+on+the+pool+to+drink+from+the+honorable+hands+of+the+prophet+%28+peace+be+upon+him%29.

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