Fatwa: # 46554
Category: Jurisprudence and Rulings...
Country: African Country
Date: 17th November 2020

Title

Deceased parent made investments for his children - What is the status of these funds in the estate?

Question

اسلام عليكم ورحمة الله وبركاته 

Respected Mufti Saheb

Deceased has opened up investment accounts for his children and grandchildren. What is the status of these funds in these investment accounts? 

Does it fall part of the estate? 

The children have power of signatory on these investment accounts as well as the grandchildren accounts. 

Kindly advise sharia ruling 

جزاكم الله خير 

Answer

In the Name of Allah, the Most Gracious, the Most Merciful.

As-salāmu ‘alaykum wa-rahmatullāhi wa-barakātuh.

In principle, the wealth of the deceased belongs to him unless he explicitly handed that wealth over to the children/grandchildren by means of a gift which was then accepted and taken possession of by the giftee (children/grandchildren).[1]

Accordingly, if the deceased merely used the names of the children and grandchildren to invest funds without actually relinquishing ownership over it, then the said funds still belong to the deceased and will form part of his estate.

However, given that the deceased appointed his children as signatories over the said accounts, it appears ownership was transferred to the children/grandchildren. Hence, the funds will not form part of the estate and will belong to the children/grandchildren.

If the grandchildren are still too young, their parents may assume responsibility of their accounts until they come of age.

 

And Allah Ta’āla Knows Best
Checked and Approved by,
Mufti Ebrahim Desai

 


شرح مختصر الطحاوي للجصاص (4/ 20) [1]

[أحكام الهبة]

مسألة: [هبة الأعيان]

(ولا تجوز الهبة في الأعيان إلا مقبوضة)

وذلك لما روي عن النبي عليه الصلاة والسلام أنه قال: "يقول ابن آدم مالي مالي .. وما لك من مالك إلا ما أكلت فأفنيت، أو لبست فأبليت، أو تصدقت فأمضيت"

فشرط في صحة الصدقة إمضاءها، ومنع صحتها بالقول دون إمضائها، وهو الإقباض والتسليم، فدل أنها لا تصح إلا مقبوضة

 

التجريد للقدوري (8/ 3805)

18290 - قال أصحابنا: إذا وهب له عينا فقبل، وقبضا في المجلس ولم يأذن له في القبض ملكها

 

المبسوط للسرخسي (12/ 48)

ثم الملك لا يثبت في الهبة بالعقد قبل القبض - عندنا - وقال مالك - رحمه الله تعالى - يثبت؛ لأنه عقد تمليك؛ فلا يتوقف ثبوت الملك به على القبض كعقد البيع، بل: أولى؛ لأن هناك الحاجة إلى إثبات الملك من الجانبين فمن جانب واحد أولى، وحجتنا في ذلك ما روي عن النبي - صلى الله عليه وسلم -: «لا تجوز الهبة إلا مقبوضة» معناه: لا يثبت الحكم، وهو الملك؛ إذ الجواز ثابت قبل القبض بالاتفاق، والصحابة اتفقوا على هذا؛ فقد ذكر أقاويلهم في الكتاب؛ ولأن هذا عقد تبرع، فلا يثبت الملك فيه بمجرد القبول كالوصية،

 

المحيط البرهاني في الفقه النعماني (6/ 238)

قال محمد رحمه الله في «الأصل» : لا تجوز الهبة إلا محوزة مقسومة مقبوضة يستوي فيها الأجنبي والولد إذا كان بالغاً، وقوله لا يجوز: لا يتم الحكم، فالجواز ثابت قبل القبض باتفاق الصحابة، والقبض الذي يتعلق به تمام الهبة؛

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