Fatwa: # 45807
Category: Hadith
Country: African Country
Date: 24th July 2020

Title

What is authenticity of narrations regarding Siffin?

Question

What is authenticity of narrations in which it is stated that during war of Siffin , Ahl i Sham lifted Quran on their spears for truce ?

What is chain of transmission of these narrations?

Some people object that isn't this act against respect and adab of Quran ?

ولم يزل ذلك دأبهم حتى أصبح الناس من يوم الجمعة وهم كذلك وصلّى الناس الصبح إيماء وهم في القتال حتى تضاحى النهار وتوجه النصر لأهل العراق على أهل الشام، وذلك أن الأشتر النخعي صارت إليه إمرة الميمنة، فجعل بمن فيها على أهل الشام، وتبعه علي فتنقضت غالب صفوفهم وكادوا ينهزمون،( فعند ذلك رفع أهل الشام المصاحف فوق الرماح) وقالوا: هذا بيننا وبينكم وقد فني الناس فمن للثغور؟ ومن لجهاد المشركين والكفار؟

البداية والنهاية

Answer

In the Name of Allah, the Most Gracious, the Most Merciful.

As-salāmu ‘alaykum wa-rahmatullāhi wa-barakātuh.

We are unable to locate the chain of narration for the exact text in reference. However, we have located the same incident with following texts:

قَالَ أَبُو مخنف: حَدَّثَنِي إِسْمَاعِيل بن يَزِيدَ، عن حميد بن مسلم، عن جندب بن عَبْدِ اللَّهِ، [أن عَلِيًّا قَالَ لِلنَّاسِ يوم صفين: لقد فعلتم فعله ضعضعت قوه، واسقطت منه، وأوهنت وأورثت وهنا وذلة، ولما كنتم الأعلين، وخاف عدوكم الاجتياح، واستحر بهم القتل ووجدوا ألم الجراح، رفعوا المصاحف، ودعوكم إِلَى مَا فِيهَا ليفثئوكم عَنْهُمْ، ويقطعوا الحرب فِيمَا بينكم وبينهم، ويتربصوا بكم ريب المنون خديعة ومكيدة، فأعطيتموهم مَا سألوا، وأبيتم إلا أن تدهنوا وتجوزوا! وايم اللَّه مَا أظنكم بعدها توافقون رشدا، وَلا تصيبون باب حزم (تاريخ الطبري = تاريخ الرسل والملوك، وصلة تاريخ الطبري 5/56)

 

فَحدثني عَبْدُ اللَّهِ بْنُ أحمد، قال: حدثني أبي، قال: حدثني سليمان بْنُ يُونُسَ بْنِ يَزِيدَ، عَنِ الزُّهْرِيِّ، قَالَ: قَالَ صَعْصَعَةُ بْنُ صَوْحَانَ يَوْمَ صِفِّينَ حِينَ رَأَى النَّاسَ يَتَبَارَوْنَ: أَلا اسْمَعُوا وَاعْقِلُوا، تَعْلَمُنَّ وَاللَّهِ لَئِنْ ظَهَرَ عَلِيٌّ لَيَكُونَنَّ مِثْلَ أَبِي بَكْرٍ وَعُمَرَ رَضِيَ اللَّهُ عَنْهُمَا، وَإِنْ ظَهَرَ مُعَاوِيَةُ لا يَقِرُّ لِقَائِلٍ بِقَوْلِ حَقٍّ قَالَ الزُّهْرِيُّ: فَأَصْبَحَ أَهْلُ الشَّامِ قَدْ نَشَرُوا مَصَاحِفَهُمْ، وَدَعَوْا إِلَى مَا فِيهَا، فَهَابَ أَهْلُ الْعِرَاقَيْنِ، فَعِنْدَ ذَلِكَ حَكَّمُوا الْحَكَمَيْنِ، فَاخْتَارَ أَهْلُ الْعِرَاقِ أَبَا مُوسَى الأَشْعَرِيَّ، وَاخْتَارَ أَهْلُ الشَّامِ عَمْرَو بْنَ الْعَاصِ، فَتَفَرَّقَ أَهْلُ صِفِّينَ حِينَ حَكَمَ الْحَكَمَانِ، فَاشْتَرَطَا أَنْ يَرْفَعَا مَا رَفَعَ الْقُرْآنُ، وَيَخْفِضَا مَا خَفَضَ الْقُرْآنَ، وَأَنْ يَخْتَارَا لأُمَّةِ محمد ص، وَأَنَّهُمَا يَجْتَمِعَانِ بِدُومَةِ الْجَنْدَلِ، فَإِنْ لَمْ يَجْتَمِعَا لِذَلِكَ اجْتَمَعَا مِنَ الْعَامِ الْمُقْبِلِ بِأَذْرُحَ

(تاريخ الطبري = تاريخ الرسل والملوك، وصلة تاريخ الطبري 5/57)..

There is a discussion amongst the scholars on the authenticity of that portion of the narration. Some scholars regard it as a reasonable source to establish historical occurrences for the purpose of detail. It is important to understand that the scholars of Hadith did not deal with narrations related to historical incidents in the same manner they dealt with narrations of Nabi (Sallallahu Alaihi Wasallam). They did not apply the same strict rules on historical narrations. Nonetheless, many scholars have quoted this incident which suggests that they accepted the idea that it had occurred.

As for your query with regards to them raising the Quran, the purpose of this was to try and convince the other party towards Tahkeem bi Kitabillah (rule on the basis of the Quran). Thus, it was actually a means of respect for the commands of Allah Ta’ala as they intended for the Quran to be used as a means to resolve the dispute amongst them.

And Allah Ta’āla Knows Best

Student Darul Iftaa

Checked and Approved by,
Mufti Ebrahim Desai.

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