Fatwa: # 44859
Category: Jurisprudence and Rulings...
Country:
Date: 3rd May 2020

Title

Nikah on video call and Wali in Nikah - Is it valid?

Question

Assalaam Alaikum, My cousin and I are from hanafi maslaq and married each other privately without any wali. My husband read the khutba and offer and I accepted and he accepted according to proper procedure. His younger brother and another cousin of mine were on video call as witnesses. They recognise me and my voice and could hear and testify to the nikah, so there is no chance of any mischief or falsehood. I got my mehr and even told my father and some family members about the nikah within the week. I found recently that such nikah is not valid because I was a virgin and wali is mandatory in such a case. Although I did nikah only after finding out from the net that it is permissible. My cousin also married my husband after two months but this time the witnesses and my husband were in the same place and my cousin was in another and these two parties were on video call. Also, one of the witnesses was a stranger who does not recognise my female cousin. Please explain with full hadith and detail:

1. Are both nikahs valid?

2. If they are not valid and now one of the sisters does not want to remain with him, is it a sin to not remarry him?

3. Is it a sin if one of us or both of us npw decide to marry someone else as per our family's wishes and let go of this person?

Please give detailed answer because I contacted Mufti menk also about this when speculations were raised but I was misguided. I was told that without wali nikah is valid for hanafi maslaq but here the question is of witnesses being on video call not wali being absent.

Answer

In the Name of Allah, the Most Gracious, the Most Merciful.

As-salāmu ‘alaykum wa-rahmatullāhi wa-barakātuh.

In principle, a valid Nikah requires the following:[1]

  • Ijaab (proposal). This is achieved by the man representing himself.
  • Qubool (Acceptance). This can be achieved by the woman representing herself. Alternatively, she may appoint a wakeel to represent her and accept the proposal on her behalf.
  • The physical presence of two males or one male and two females to witness the Nikah. Attendance via video call does not suffice. Furthermore, it is not necessary for the witnesses to be related to the either spouse.

The Nikah of an adult woman without the consent of her Wali is valid although not recommended. 

Accordingly,

1.     Your Nikah to your cousin was not valid as the witnesses were not physically present. As stated earlier, attendance via video call does not suffice.

As for the Nikah of your cousin, your husband and the two witnesses were present in one room. However, you state that your cousin (bride) was only present via video call with the husband and witnesses. Therefore, it is as though she was absent. As such, if she did not appoint a third individual to represent her and accept the proposal in the presence of the witnesses and husband, her Nikah will not be valid.

2.     The woman is not obliged to re-marry this man. It is her right to marry whomsoever she wishes. There is no sin in refusing to marry this man.

3.     It is not a sin to marry someone else since the previous Nikah was not valid. Infact, if you decide to marry someone else with the permission and blessing of your parents, Insha-Allah, your new marriage will be filled with Barakah.

 

And Allah Ta’āla Knows Best

Bilal Yusuf Pandor

Student Darul Iftaa

Lusaka, Zambia

Checked and Approved by,
Mufti Ebrahim Desai

 


[1] الدر المختار، ص١٨٣، دار الكتب العلمية

(وَهُوَ ) أَيْ الْوَلِيُّ ( شَرْطُ ) صِحَّةِ ( نِكَاحِ صَغِيرٍ وَمَجْنُونٍ وَرَقِيقٍ ) لَا مُكَلَّفَةٍ ( فَنَفَذَ نِكَاحُ حُرَّةٍ مُكَلَّفَةٍ بِلَا ) رِضَا ( وَلِيٍّ )

 

اللباب في شرح الكتاب، ص٤١٤، بشار بكري

و ينعقد نكاح المراة الحرة البالغة العاقلة برضاها فقط سواء باشرته بنفسها أو وكلت غيرها و أن لم يعقد عليها ولى و لم ياذن به

 

القدورى ص210 سعيد

النكاح ينعقد بالايجاب و القبول

 

الأصل للشيباني ط قطر (10/ 211)

فإذا (10) تزوجها بغير شهود وأشهد على ذلك بعد ذلك فلا يجوز. وإن استقبل نكاحها بشاهدين فهو جائز

 

شرح مختصر الطحاوي ج4 ص243 دار السراج

لا نكاح الا بشهود احرار مسلمين بالغين شاهدين او اكثر او رجل و امراتين

 

بدائع ج2 ص522 احياء التراث

 قال عامة العلماء ان الشهادة شرط جواز النكاح....عن رسول الله صلى الله عليه و سلم انه نهى عن نكاح السر و النهىي عن السر يكون امرا بالاعلان 

 

بدائع الصنائع في ترتيب الشرائع (2/ 232)

(وأما) الذي يرجع إلى مكان العقد فهو اتحاد المجلس إذا كان العاقدان حاضرين وهو أن يكون الإيجاب والقبول في مجلس واحد حتى لو اختلف المجلس لا ينعقد النكاح، بأن كانا حاضرين فأوجب أحدهما فقام الآخر عن المجلس قبل القبول، أو اشتغل بعمل يوجب اختلاف المجلس، لا ينعقد؛ لأن انعقاده عبارة عن ارتباط أحد الشطرين بالآخر، فكان القياس وجودهما في مكان واحد، إلا أن اعتبار ذلك يؤدي إلى سد باب العقود؛ فجعل المجلس جامعا للشطرين حكما مع تفرقهما حقيقة للضرورة، والضرورة تندفع عند اتحاد المجلس، فإذا اختلف تفرق الشطرين حقيقة...........................
فأما إذا كان أحدهما غائبا؛ لم ينعقد حتى لو قالت امرأة بحضرة شاهدين: زوجت نفسي من فلان وهو غائب فبلغه الخبر فقال: قبلت أو قال رجل بحضرة شاهدين: تزوجت فلانة وهي غائبة فبلغها الخبر فقالت: زوجت نفسي منه لم يجز، وإن كان القبول بحضرة ذينك الشاهدين.

وهذا قول أبي حنيفة ومحمد وقال أبو يوسف: ينعقد ويتوقف على إجازة الغائب.

 

حاشية ابن عابدين (رد المحتار) (3/ 14)

(قوله: اتحاد المجلس) قال في البحر: فلو اختلف المجلس لم ينعقد

 

Contemporary Fatawa by Mufti Taqi Uthmani p.132

 

فتاوى دار العلوم زكريا (3/ 558)

 

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