Fatwa: # 44131
Category: Jurisprudence and Rulings...
Country:
Date: 30th November -0001

Title

Question

AWW. I am due to be divorced soon (because my father in law is demanding, that I hand over my salary to him each month). I have spoken to my work regarding Iddat and if I am able to take 3 months off work. It has been a struggle to find this job in the first place and my work has informed me that I will lose my job if i take 3 months off for Iddat. I am 27 and have no children and I am not pregnant. It will be very difficult for me if I lose this job.

Please advise on what I should do? 

Answer

In the Name of Allah, the Most Gracious, the Most Merciful.

As-salāmu ‘alaykum wa-rahmatullāhi wa-barakātuh.

Respected Sister,

 

We make Dua that Allah Ta’ala grants you ease in the matter.

 

It is completely wrong of your father-in-law to demand that you hand over your salary to him.

The purpose of a marriage is to form a lasting bond and relationship between a couple. Issuing divorce in Shari’ah is taken as an action of last resort and should not be sought after especially if the problems are external and not between the couple.

عَنْ جَابِرٍ، قَالَ: قَالَ رَسُولُ اللهِ صَلَّى اللهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ: " إِنَّ إِبْلِيسَ يَضَعُ عَرْشَهُ عَلَى الْمَاءِ، ثُمَّ يَبْعَثُ سَرَايَاهُ، فَأَدْنَاهُمْ مِنْهُ مَنْزِلَةً أَعْظَمُهُمْ فِتْنَةً، يَجِيءُ أَحَدُهُمْ فَيَقُولُ: فَعَلْتُ كَذَا وَكَذَا، فَيَقُولُ: مَا صَنَعْتَ شَيْئًا، قَالَ ثُمَّ يَجِيءُ أَحَدُهُمْ فَيَقُولُ: مَا تَرَكْتُهُ حَتَّى فَرَّقْتُ بَيْنَهُ وَبَيْنَ امْرَأَتِهِ، قَالَ: فَيُدْنِيهِ مِنْهُ وَيَقُولُ: نِعْمَ أَنْتَ " قَالَ الْأَعْمَشُ: أُرَاهُ قَالَ: فَيَلْتَزِمُهُ (صحيح مسلم (4/ 2167)

 

Translation: Hadhrat Jabir (Radhiyallahu Anhu) reports that Allah's Messenger (Sallallahu Alaihi Wasallam) said: “Iblis places his throne upon water; he then sends detachments (for creating dissension); the nearer to him in rank are those who are most notorious in creating dissension. One of them comes and says: "I did so and so." And he says: "You have done nothing." Then one amongst them comes and says: "I did not spare so and so until I caused a husband and wife to seperate." The Satan goes near him and says: "You have done well." A'mash (Rahimahullah) said: Shaitaan then embraces him. (Muslim)

 

عَنِ ابْنِ عُمَرَ، عَنِ النَّبِيِّ صَلَّى اللهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ قَالَ: أَبْغَضُ الْحَلَالِ إِلَى اللَّهِ تَعَالَى الطَّلَاقُ (سنن أبي داود (2/ 255)

Translation: Hadhrat Ibn Umar (Radhiyallahu Anhu) narrates that Nabi (Salallahu Alaihi Wasallam) said: the most detested of permissible actions to Allah Ta’ala is Talaaq (divorce). (Abu-Dawud)

Nabi (Sallallahu Alaihi Wasallam) described divorce to be the work of shaitaan and most detested of permissible acts to Allah Ta’ala.

 

Our sincere advice to you is if this is the sole reason for considering a divorce, then try to find other solutions to mend the matter amicably. You may ask your husband to address the matter with his father. If that is not possible, seek the assistance of an elderly or mutually respected person of the family. However, if all avenues where explored and the matter cannot be solved, the divorce may go ahead.

 

In principle, the Iddah of a divorced woman will be 3 menstrual cycles. A woman sitting for Iddah should not leave her home except for dire necessity.1

 

Shariah desires for a woman to remain in the confinements of her home and made it the duty of the man to provide for her. If she is a daughter, Shariah has made the father responsible to provide for her until she becomes a wife, then the responsibility to provide for her falls on her husband. Never does Shariah force a woman to go out in the work field and provide for herself, thereby making it easier upon her to maintain her shame and modesty. Nevertheless, Shariah does permit a woman to acquire her own income.

 

With regard to your query, during your Iddah it is the duty of a women’s ex-husband to support her. However, if he does not support her, then this duty will fall on her father. After this period, it will be the responsibility of the father to support his daughter.2

 

However, if it’s not possible for the father or other relatives to provide for her and she has no other means of income, then there is leeway for her to leave the house to seek a livelihood.

 

In this way if she fears not having any source of income during Iddah or after her Iddah,

then she may continue to work as normal but she should seek Allah’s forgiveness for the weakness with regards to fulfilling Allah’s command due to the fear of losing her job and the difficulty of finding another job.

 

If it is possible for one change or adjust the working hours in such a way that minimal time is spent outside the house then one must certainly do so

 

However, if that is not possible, then it is important that she returns home immediately upon being free from her work. Spending any time outside the house over and above that which is necessary is not permissible.3

 

And Allah Ta’āla Knows Best

 

Abdullah Noorgat

 

Student Darul Ifta

 

South Africa

 

Checked and Approved by,
Mufti Ebrahim Desai.

 

 

1.      وإذا طُلِّقَت المرأة ثلاثاً أو تطليقة يَمْلِكُ فيها الرجعةَ زوجُها فإن (1) عليها العدة كما قال الله تعالى في كتابه: {ثَلَاثَةَ قُرُوءٍ} (2)، إن كانت تحيض. وإن كانت لا تحيض من صغر أو كبر فعدتها ثلاثة أشهر. فإن كانت حاملاً فعدتها أن تضع حملها.( الأصل للشيباني ط قطر (4/ 403)

 

ولا ينبغي للمطلقة ثلاثاً أو واحدة بائنة أو واحدة يملك الزوج فيها الرجعة أن تخرج (1) من منزلها ليلاً ولا نهاراً حتى تنقضي [عدتها لقوله تعالى: {لَا تُخْرِجُوهُنَّ مِنْ بُيُوتِهِنَّ وَلَا يَخْرُجْنَ إِلَّا] (2) أَنْ يَأْتِينَ بِفَاحِشَةٍ مُبَيِّنَةٍ}( الأصل للشيباني ط قطر (4/ 405)

 

 

2.      (قَوْلُهُ كَأُنْثَى مُطْلَقًا) أَيْ وَلَوْ لَمْ يَكُنْ بِهَا زَمَانَةٌ تَمْنَعُهَا عَنْ الْكَسْبِ فَمُجَرَّدُ الْأُنُوثَةِ عَجْزٌ إلَّا إذَا كَانَ لَهَا زَوْجٌ فَنَفَقَتُهَا عَلَيْهِ مَا دَامَتْ زَوْجَةً وَهَلْ إذَا نَشَزَتْ عَنْ طَاعَتِهِ تَجِبُ لَهَا النَّفَقَةُ عَلَى أَبِيهَا مَحَلُّ تَرَدُّدٍ فَتَأَمَّلْ، وَتَقَدَّمَ أَنَّهُ لَيْسَ لِلْأَبِ أَنْ يُؤْجِرَهَا فِي عَمَلٍ أَوْ خِدْمَةٍ، وَأَنَّهُ لَوْ كَانَ لَهَا كَسْبٌ لَا تَجِبُ عَلَيْهِ (الدر المختار وحاشية ابن عابدين (رد المحتار) (3/ 614)

 

 

وَنَفَقَةُ الْإِنَاثِ وَاجِبَةٌ مُطْلَقًا عَلَى الْآبَاءِ مَا لَمْ يَتَزَوَّجْنَ إذَا لَمْ يَكُنْ لَهُنَّ مَالٌ كَذَا فِي الْخُلَاصَةِ. (الفتاوى الهندية (1/ 563)

 

3.      ولا يجوز للمطلقة الرجعية والمبتوتة الخروج من بيتها ليلا ولا نهارا والمتوفى عنها زوجها تخرج نهارا وبعض الليل ولا تبيت في غير منزلها " أما المطلقة فلقوله تعالى: {لا تُخْرِجُوهُنَّ مِنْ بُيُوتِهِنَّ وَلا يَخْرُجْنَ إِلَّا أَنْ يَأْتِينَ بِفَاحِشَةٍ مُبَيِّنَةٍ} [الطلاق: 1] قيل الفاحشة نفس الخروج وقيل الزنا ويخرجن لإقامة الحد.

وأما المتوفى عنها زوجها فلأنه لا نفقة لها فتحتاج إلى الخروج نهارا لطلب المعاش وقد يمتد إلى أن يهجم الليل ولا كذلك المطلقة لأن النفقة دارة عليها من مال زوجها حتى لو اختلعت على نفقة عدتها قيل إنها تخرج نهارا وقيل لا تخرج لأنها أسقطت حقها فلا يبطل به حق عليها.( الهداية في شرح بداية المبتدي (2/ 279)

 

(قَوْلُهُ حَتَّى لَوْ اخْتَلَعَتْ عَلَى نَفَقَةِ عِدَّتِهَا قِيلَ: تَخْرُجُ نَهَارًا) لِأَنَّهَا قَدْ تَحْتَاجُ كَالْمُتَوَفَّى عَنْهَا. وَقِيلَ: لَا يُبَاحُ لَهَا الْخُرُوجُ لِأَنَّهَا هِيَ الَّتِي أَبْطَلَتْ النَّفَقَةَ فَلَا يَصِحُّ هَذَا الِاخْتِيَارُ فِي إبْطَالِ حَقٍّ عَلَيْهَا، وَبِهِ كَانَ يُفْتِي الصَّدْرُ الشَّهِيدُ، وَصَحَّحَهُ فِي جَامِعِ قَاضِي خَانْ، وَهَذَا كَمَا لَوْ اخْتَلَعَتْ عَلَى أَنْ لَا سُكْنَى لَهَا فَإِنَّ مَئُونَةَ السُّكْنَى تَبْطُلُ عَنْ الزَّوْجِ وَيَلْزَمُهَا أَنْ تَكْتَرِيَ بَيْتَ الزَّوْجِ، وَأَمَّا أَنْ يَحِلَّ لَهَا الْخُرُوجُ فَلَا. وَالْحَقُّ أَنَّ عَلَى الْمُفْتِي أَنْ يَنْظُرَ فِي خُصُوصِ الْوَقَائِعِ، فَإِنْ عَلِمَ فِي وَاقِعَةٍ عَجْزَ هَذِهِ الْمُخْتَلِعَةِ عَنْ الْمَعِيشَةِ إنْ لَمْ تَخْرُجْ أَفْتَاهَا بِالْحِلِّ وَإِنْ عَلِمَ قُدْرَتَهَا أَفْتَاهَا بِالْحُرْمَةِ.( فتح القدير للكمال ابن الهمام (4/ 343)

 

وَأَمَّا فِي حَالَةِ الضَّرُورَةِ فَإِنْ اُضْطُرَّتْ إلَى الْخُرُوجِ مِنْ بَيْتِهَا بِأَنْ خَافَتْ سُقُوطَ مَنْزِلِه

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