Fatwa: # 44054
Category: Character, Morals (Akhlaaq)
Country:
Date: 19th January 2020

Title

Can i take my adoptive parents’ surname?

Question

As salamu alaykum beloved Shaykh,

 

I am an orphan and I do not know who my parents are if they are alive or passed away. I was brought up by a loving people who i call them Mum and Dad - My name goes as Muhammad Nabeel Mansoor - Mansoor is a part of the name that comes from my loving caretakers - they do not have children thus they lovingly adopted me and call me son. I got to know that i was an orphan a few years ago and i was shaken by the news however being the Decree of Allah i accepted the goodness in it and i love my caretakers even more.

My question:

1. Can i call my caretakers Mom and Dad? I do realise that they are not in actuality my parents but i find it uncomfortable to call them uncle or aunty - furthermore i fear my changing would hurt their feelings so is it ok to call them mom and dad out of love?

2. Can i attach the name Mansoor as my last name or should i go as Muhammad Nabeel? - all my certificates, birth cirtificate, id cards have my full name. Is it a sin to keep "Mansoor" as it comes from my caretakers?

3. I intend to build a tube well for some poor family through Ummah Welfare Trust - they asked me for my name to add on in the plaque - should i mention Muhammad Nabeel or Muhammad Nabeel Mansoor?

May Allah bless you greatly.

Nabeel

Answer

In the Name of Allah, the Most Gracious, the Most Merciful.

As-salāmu ‘alaykum wa-rahmatullāhi wa-barakātuh.

At times, Almighty Allah in His infinite wisdom may test his slaves in ways that we may not understand. Being an orphan was also a test from Almighty Allah. To accept this is part of Taqdeer and one’s faith. Alhamdulillah, you were also blessed to have been raised by two loving adoptive parents as their own child. You only came to know of your status a few years ago and Alhamdulillah, it pleases us to hear of your submission to the Decree of Almighty Allah. You should take solace in the fact that the most beloved human to Almighty Allah, Rasulullah (Sallallahu Alayhi Wasallam), was also orphaned at a very young age.

It was noble of your adoptive parents to raise you as their own son. Indeed, the rewards for such an act are manifold. Rasulullah (Sallallahu Alayhi Wasallam) said,[1]

أنا وكافل اليتيم في الجنة هكذا وأشار بالسبابة والوسطى، وفرج بينهما شيئا

Translation: “I and the one who takes care of an orphan will be like this in Jannah, then he raised his index and middle finger and made a small gap between the two (indicating towards the proximity between two fingers).”

Rasulullah (Sallallahu Alayhi Wasallam) himself adopted Zaid ibn Haritha (Radhiyallahu Anhu).

As for the usage of surnames, it should be understood that the usage of surnames was not common during the time of Rasulullah (Sallallahu Alayhi Wasallam). People were generally known by the name of their father, (son of so-and-so, and daughter of so-and-so). They used to use ‘Ibn’ (son of…) and ‘Bint’ (daughter of…) after one’s name, not a surname.

The Shariah prohibits ascribing one’s lineage to other than one’s biological father or claiming that someone else is one’s biological father.[2] This is unlawful because it misleads others and involves demonstrating ingratitude to one’s real parents and denying them their fundamental parental rights.

However, in our times, the usage of family names/surnames has become prevalent as a method of recognizing or identifying who an individual is. Often, people become known with a specific name, though it may not reflect their actual lineage. This is not considered to be “altering one’s lineage” or “assigning one’s self to someone other than one’s father.”

 

It is permissible for an individual to adopt another surname provided it is for the purpose of identification etc, and he does not intend to mislead others or absolve himself of his lineal ascription to his real father. Accordingly, it will be permissible to use the surname of your adoptive parents on identification documents and the plaque in reference.[3]

 

As for calling your adoptive parents “mum” and “dad”,[4] as long as one does not believe them to be his actual parents, there is no harm in doing so.   

 

And Allah Ta’āla Knows Best

Bilal Yusuf Pandor

Student Darul Iftaa

Lusaka, Zambia

Checked and Approved by,
Mufti Ebrahim Desai.

 


صحيح البخاري (7/ 53) [1]

5304 - حدثنا عمرو بن زرارة، أخبرنا عبد العزيز بن أبي حازم، عن أبيه، عن سهل، قال: رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم: «وأنا وكافل اليتيم في الجنة هكذا» وأشار بالسبابة والوسطى، وفرج بينهما شيئا

 

 [2]عَنْ عَاصِمٍ، قَالَ سَمِعْتُ أَبَا عُثْمَانَ، قَالَ سَمِعْتُ سَعْدًا ـ وَهْوَ أَوَّلُ مَنْ رَمَى بِسَهْمٍ فِي سَبِيلِ اللَّهِ ـ وَأَبَا بَكْرَةَ ـ وَكَانَ تَسَوَّرَ حِصْنَ الطَّائِفِ فِي أُنَاسٍ ـ فَجَاءَ إِلَى النَّبِيِّ صلى الله عليه وسلم فَقَالاَ سَمِعْنَا النَّبِيَّ صلى الله عليه وسلم يَقُولُ ‏ "‏ مَنِ ادَّعَى إِلَى غَيْرِ أَبِيهِ وَهْوَ يَعْلَمُ فَالْجَنَّةُ عَلَيْهِ حَرَامٌ ‏"‏‏.(صحيح بخاري-4327)

 

عَنْ إِبْرَاهِيمَ التَّيْمِيِّ، عَنْ أَبِيهِ، قَالَ خَطَبَنَا عَلِيُّ بْنُ أَبِي طَالِبٍ فَقَالَ مَنْ زَعَمَ أَنَّ عِنْدَنَا، شَيْئًا نَقْرَأُهُ إِلاَّ كِتَابَ اللَّهِ وَهَذِهِ الصَّحِيفَةَ ...وفيها قال النَّبِيُّ صلى الله عليه وسلم... وَمَنِ ادَّعَى إِلَى غَيْرِ أَبِيهِ أَوِ انْتَمَى إِلَى غَيْرِ مَوَالِيهِ فَعَلَيْهِ لَعْنَةُ اللَّهِ وَالْمَلاَئِكَةِ وَالنَّاسِ أَجْمَعِينَ لاَ يَقْبَلُ اللَّهُ مِنْهُ يَوْمَ الْقِيَامَةِ صَرْفًا وَلاَ عَدْلاً (صحيح المسلم-1370)‏

 

الدر المختار وحاشية ابن عابدين (رد المحتار) (5/ 585) [3]

 قال في الولوالجية: ولو ادعى أنه أخوه لأبويه فجحد: فإن القاضي يسأله ألك قبله ميراث تدعيه أو نفقة أو حق من الحقوق التي لا يقدر على أخذها إلا بإثبات النسب، فإن كان كذلك يقبل القاضي بينته على إثبات النسب، وإلا فلا خصومة بينهما لأنه إذا لم يدع مالا لم يدع حقا لأن الأخوة المجاورة بين الأخوين في الصلب أو الرحم، ولو ادعى أنه أبوه، وأنكر فأثبته يقبل، وكذا عكسه وإن لم يدع قبله حقا؛ لأنه لو أقر به صح فينتصب خصما، وهذا لأنه يدعي حقا فإن الابن يدعي حق الانتساب إليه، والأب يدعي وجوب الانتساب إلى نفسه شرعا، وقال - عليه الصلاة والسلام - «من انتسب إلى غير أبيه أو انتمى إلى غير مواليه فعليه لعنة الله والملائكة والناس أجمعين»

 

فتح الباري لابن حجر (12/ 55)

عن بن وهب بسنده إلى عراك أنه سمع أبا هريرة قوله لا ترغبوا عن آبائكم فمن رغب عن أبيه فهو كفر كذا للأكثر وكذا لمسلم ووقع للكشميهني فقد كفر وسيأتي في باب رجم الحبلى من الزنا في حديث عمر الطويل لا ترغبوا عن آبائكم فهو كفر بربكم قال بن بطال ليس معنى هذين الحديثين أن من اشتهر بالنسبة إلى غير أبيه أن يدخل في الوعيد كالمقداد بن الأسود وإنما المراد به من تحول عن نسبته لأبيه إلى غير أبيه عالما عامدا مختارا وكانوا في الجاهلية لا يستنكرون أن يتبنى الرجل ولد غيره ويصير الولد ينسب إلى الذي تبناه حتى نزل قوله تعالى ادعوهم لآبائهم هو أقسط عند الله وقوله سبحانه وتعالى وما جعل أدعياءكم أبناءكم فنسب كل واحد إلى أبيه الحقيقي وترك الانتساب إلى من تبناه لكن بقي بعضهم مشهورا بمن تبناه فيذكر به لقصد التعريف لا لقصد النسب الحقيقي...

 

فتح الملهم بشرح صحيح الامام المسلم (ج-3 ص-281)

قال النووي : وهذا صريح في غلظ تحريم انتماء الإنسان إلى غير أبيه ، أو انتماء العتيق إلى ولاء غير مواليه ؛ لما فيه من كفر النعمة وتضييع حقوق الإرث والولاء والعقل ، وغير ذلك ، مع ما فيه من قطيعة الرحم والعقوق

 

اپ کے مساءل اور ان کا حل (ج-7 ص-21-مکتبہ لدہیانوی)

 

أحكام القرآن للجصاص ت قمحاوي (1/ 100) [4]

قَالَ اللَّهُ تَعَالَى [أَمْ كُنْتُمْ شُهَداءَ إِذْ حَضَرَ يَعْقُوبَ الْمَوْتُ إِذْ قالَ لِبَنِيهِ مَا تَعْبُدُونَ مِنْ بَعْدِي قالُوا نَعْبُدُ إِلهَكَ وَإِلهَ آبائِكَ إِبْراهِيمَ وَإِسْماعِيلَ وَإِسْحاقَ إِلهاً واحِداً] فَسَمَّى الْجَدَّ وَالْعَمَّ كُلَّ وَاحِدٍ مِنْهُمَا أَبًا وَقَالَ تَعَالَى حَاكِيًا عَنْ يُوسُفَ عَلَيْهِ السَّلَامُ [وَاتَّبَعْتُ مِلَّةَ آبائِي إِبْراهِيمَ وَإِسْحاقَ وَيَعْقُوبَ] وَقَدْ احْتَجَّ ابْنُ عَبَّاسٍ بِذَلِكَ فِي تَوْرِيثِ الْجَدِّ دُونَ الْإِخْوَةِ وَرَوَى الْحَجَّاجُ عَنْ عَطَاءٍ عَنْ ابْنِ عَبَّاسٍ قَالَ مَنْ شَاءَ لَاعَنْتُهُ عِنْدَ الْحَجَرِ الْأَسْوَدِ أَنَّ الْجَدَّ أَبٌ وَاَللَّهِ مَا ذَكَرَ اللَّهُ جَدًّا وَلَا جَدَّةً إلَّا أَنَّهُمْ الْآبَاء

 

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