Fatwa: # 42685
Category: Charity, Obligatory (Zakaat)
Country:
Date: 14th October 2019

Title

Is Zakat due at the end of the business' financial year or are the end of the Zakat lunar year?

Question

Asalaamualaykum WB,

 

Dear respected scholars,

 

I would like to ask if zakat is payable in the following context:

A services business that has no outstanding liabilities/debt. There is no tangible stock/assets due to the nature of the business (offering professional advice/corporate consultancy services). In this respect the assets of the business would be the cash deposits held with the bank. 

Is zakat payable on the total cash deposits held at the time when zakat is due or on the net profit of the company at the end of its financial year?

 

Your guidance in this matter would be very much appreciated. 

 

Jazakallah Khair,

 

Answer

In the Name of Allah, the Most Gracious, the Most Merciful. 

As-salāmu ‘alaykum wa-rahmatullāhi wa-barakātuh. 

 

In principle, Zakat becomes obligatory the first time one has the nisab (wealth equivalent to 87.48 grams of gold or 612.36 grams of silver) of Zakat. Furthermore, Zakat is calculated according to the lunar calendar. When one has the nisab of Zakat for the first time, he should ascertain the date on the lunar calendar and use the that date as his yearly Zakat calendar. 

 

For example, if the first time you ever became the owner of money equal to the nisab or more was on the 1stof Ramadhan, then your ‘Zakat day’ is the 1stof Ramadhan. You will calculate your Zakat based on the wealth that you possess on the 1stof Ramadhan every year.  

 

In the enquired situation, your Zakat will be due when the lunar year passes and not at the end of the business’ financial year. 

 

We remind you one should join his private Zakatable wealth with his business assets and give Zakat upon the total assets.[i]

 

And Allah Ta’āla Knows Best 

Mohammed

Student Darul Iftaa 
UK 

Checked and Approved by, 
Mufti Ebrahim Desai. 

 

 

 


[i]امداد الاحكام (٣١/٢)

 

الأصل للشيباني ط قطر (2/ 90)

قلت: أرأيت التاجر يكون له المال، ويكون عليه المال، كيف يصنع إذا حال عليه الحول؟ قال: يقوم كل مال للتجارة وكل مال عليه، فإن كان المالان سواء أو كان الذي عليه من الدين أكثر فليس عليه زكاة، وإن كان ماله أكثر مما عليه من الدين بمائتي درهم فصاعداً، أو بعشرين مثقالاً من ذهب فصاعداً، زكى هذا الفضل الذي فضل عما عليه من الدين

 

بدائع الصنائع في ترتيب الشرائع (2/ 20)

وَأَمَّا أَمْوَالُ التِّجَارَةِ فَتَقْدِيرُ النِّصَابِ فِيهَا بِقِيمَتِهَا مِنْ الدَّنَانِيرِ وَالدَّرَاهِمِ فَلَا شَيْءَ فِيهَا مَا لَمْ تَبْلُغْ قِيمَتُهَا مِائَتَيْ دِرْهَمٍ أَوْ عِشْرِينَ مِثْقَالًا مِنْ ذَهَبٍ فَتَجِبُ فِيهَا الزَّكَاةُ، وَهَذَا قَوْلُ عَامَّةِ الْعُلَمَاءِ

 

بدائع الصنائع في ترتيب الشرائع (2/ 21)

وَأَمَّا صِفَةُ هَذَا النِّصَابِ فَهِيَ أَنْ يَكُونَ مُعَدًّا لِلتِّجَارَةِ وَهُوَ أَنْ يُمْسِكَهَا لِلتِّجَارَةِ وَذَلِكَ بِنِيَّةِ التِّجَارَةِ مُقَارَنَةً لِعَمَلِ التِّجَارَةِ لِمَا ذَكَرْنَا فِيمَا تَقَدَّمَ بِخِلَافِ الذَّهَبِ وَالْفِضَّةِ فَإِنَّهُ لَا يَحْتَاجُ فِيهِمَا إلَى نِيَّةِ التِّجَارَةِ؛ لِأَنَّهَا مُعَدَّةٌ لِلتِّجَارَةِ بِأَصْلِ الْخِلْقَةِ فَلَا حَاجَةَ إلَى إعْدَادِ الْعَبْدِ وَيُوجَدُ الْإِعْدَادُ مِنْهُ دَلَالَةً عَلَى مَا مَرَّ...

وَأَمَّا صِفَةُ الْوَاجِبِ فِي أَمْوَالِ التِّجَارَةِ فَالْوَاجِبُ فِيهَا رُبُعُ عُشْرِ الْعَيْنِ وَهُوَ النِّصَابُ فِي قَوْلِ أَصْحَابِنَا، وَقَالَ بَعْضُ مَشَايِخِنَا: هَذَا قَوْلُ أَبِي يُوسُفَ وَمُحَمَّدٍ

وَأَمَّا عَلَى قَوْلِ أَبِي حَنِيفَةَ فَالْوَاجِبُ فِيهَا أَحَدُ شَيْئَيْنِ.

أَمَّا الْعَيْنُ أَوْ الْقِيمَةُ فَالْمَالِكُ بِالْخِيَارِ عِنْدَ حَوَلَانِ الْحَوْلِ

إنَّ عَلَى قَوْلِ أَبِي حَنِيفَةَ: وَإِنْ أَدَّى مِنْ عَيْنِهَا يُؤَدِّي خَمْسَةَ أَقْفِزَةٍ فِي الزِّيَادَةِ وَالنُّقْصَانِ جَمِيعًا؛ لِأَنَّهُ تَبَيَّنَ أَنَّهُ الْوَاجِبُ مِنْ الْأَصْلِ فَإِنْ أَدَّى الْقِيمَةَ يُؤَدِّي خَمْسَةَ دَرَاهِمَ فِي الزِّيَادَةِ وَالنُّقْصَانِ جَمِيعًا؛ لِأَنَّهُ تَبَيَّنَ أَنَّهَا هِيَ الْوَاجِبَةُ يَوْمَ الْحَوْلِ.

وَعِنْدَ أَبِي يُوسُفَ وَمُحَمَّدٍ إنْ أَدَّى مِنْ عَيْنِهَا يُؤَدِّي خَمْسَةَ أَقْفِزَةٍ فِي الزِّيَادَةِ وَالنُّقْصَانِ جَمِيعًا، كَمَا قَالَ أَبُو حَنِيفَةَ: وَإِنْ أَدَّى مِنْ الْقِيمَةِ يُؤَدِّي فِي النُّقْصَانِ دِرْهَمَيْنِ وَنِصْفًا وَفِي الزِّيَادَةِ عَشْرَةَ دَرَاهِمَ؛ لِأَنَّ الْوَاجِبَ الْأَصْلِيَّ عِنْدَهُمَا هُوَ رُبُعُ عُشْرِ الْعَيْنِ وَإِنَّمَا لَهُ وِلَايَةُ النَّقْلِ إلَى الْقِيمَةِ يَوْمَ الْأَدَاءِ فَيُعْتَبَرُ قِيمَتُهَا يَوْمَ الْأَدَاءِ، وَالصَّحِيحُ أَنَّ هَذَا مَذْهَبُ جَمِيعِ أَصْحَابِنَا؛ لِأَنَّ الْمَذْهَبَ عِنْدَهُمْ أَنَّهُ إذَا هَلَكَ النِّصَابُ بَعْدَ الْحَوْلِ تَسْقُطُ الزَّكَاةُ سَوَاءٌ كَانَ مِنْ السَّوَائِمِ أَوْ مِنْ أَمْوَالِ التِّجَارَةِ.

 

الفتاوى الهندية (1/ 179)

الزَّكَاةُ وَاجِبَةٌ فِي عُرُوضِ التِّجَارَةِ كَائِنَةً مَا كَانَتْ إذَا بَلَغَتْ قِيمَتُهَا نِصَابًا مِنْ الْوَرِقِ وَالذَّهَبِ كَذَا فِي الْهِدَايَةِ. وَيُقَوَّمُ بِالْمَضْرُوبَةِ كَذَا فِي التَّبْيِينِ وَتُعْتَبَرُ الْقِيمَةُ عِنْدَ حَوَلَانِ الْحَوْلِ بَعْدَ أَنْ تَكُونَ قِيمَتُهَا فِي ابْتِدَاءِ الْحَوْلِ مِائَتَيْ دِرْهَمٍ مِنْ الدَّرَاهِمِ الْغَالِبِ عَلَيْهَا الْفِضَّةُ كَذَا فِي الْمُضْمَرَاتِ ثُمَّ فِي تَقْوِيمِ عُرُوضِ التِّجَارَةِ التَّخْيِيرُ يَقُومُ بِأَيِّهِمَا شَاءَ مِنْ الدَّرَاهِمِ وَالدَّنَانِيرِ إلَّا إذَا كَانَتْ لَا تَبْلُغُ بِأَحَدِهِمَا نِصَابًا فَحِينَئِذٍ تَعَيَّنَ التَّقْوِيمُ بِمَا يَبْلُغُ نِصَابًا هَكَذَا فِي الْبَحْرِ الرَّائِقِ. إذَا كَانَ لَهُ مِائَتَا قَفِيزٍ حِنْطَةً لِلتِّجَارَةِ تُسَاوِي مِائَتَيْ دِرْهَمٍ فَتَمَّالْحَوْلُ ثُمَّ زَادَ السِّعْرُ أَوْ انْتَقَصَ فَإِنْ أَدَّى مِنْ عَيْنِهَا أَدَّى خَمْسَةَ أَقْفِزَةٍ، وَإِنْ أَدَّى الْقِيمَةَ تُعْتَبَرُ قِيمَتُهَا يَوْمَ الْوُجُوبِ؛ لِأَنَّ الْوَاجِبَ أَحَدُهُمَا وَلِهَذَا يُجْبَرُ الْمُصَدِّقُ عَلَى قَبُولِهِ وَعِنْدَهُمَا يَوْمَ الْأَدَاءِ.

 

 

 

 

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