Fatwa: # 42448
Category: Jurisprudence and Rulings...
Country:
Date: 22nd October 2019

Title

Medical insurance

Question

Assalam Alaikum Mufti Sahab,

Jazakallah khair for the effort.

I have a simple and important Question.

Why Medical Insurance is not permitted in India whereas it is permitted in USA. Now the situation in India related to Medical bills are similar to USA. Any medical problem is costing comparatively very high in order to get it diagnosed and treated in India too. If you go to small and cheap doctors they are treating patients wrongly without even diagnosing the problem. As a result patients have to go to Good Doctors whose consulting fees is around 500/- to 800/- and if there is any treatment is involved the costs are going to as high as 20-25 Lakhs. In Indian salary scenarios these amounts are as exhorbitant as USA scenarios.

Kindly answer this query as most my other questions asked till date have not been answered.

Jazakallah khair

Answer

In the Name of Allah, the Most Gracious, the Most Merciful.

As-salāmu ‘alaykum wa-rahmatullāhi wa-barakātuh.

In principle, medical insurance is not permissible due to three prohibited elements:

1.      Gambling (Qimaar): The health insurance provider may receive more money than the insured amount or may not receive any sum of money. The covered person, depending on his medical condition may receive more than or less than what he has paid for. This is gambling.

 

2.      Interest (Riba): If the insurance company pays out less than the premiums received, then the surplus premiums are interest for the company. Similarly, if the policy holder receives more than the premiums paid, this surplus is also interest.

 

3.      Uncertainty (Ghrar): There is no guarantee when medical attention will be needed by the insured person. The insurance plan is therefore based on an uncertain future occurrence, i.e. the insured person's medical condition.

 

However, if there is a dire need or necessity it will be permissible to utilize medical insurance on the basis of the principle: الضَّرُورَاتُ تُبِيحُ الْمَحْظُورَاتِ (necessities permit the prohibited). The Ulama of USA have deemed it permissible based on need and necessity. As far as India is concerned, the local Ulama must be consulted to make a decision.[1]

And Allah Ta’āla Knows Best

Muddathir

Student-Darul Iftaa
Checked and Approved by,
Mufti Ebrahim Desai.

 

 


سورة مائدة (90) [1]
يَا أَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا إِنَّمَا الْخَمْرُ وَالْمَيْسِرُ وَالْأَنْصَابُ وَالْأَزْلَامُ رِجْسٌ مِنْ عَمَلِ الشَّيْطَانِ فَاجْتَنِبُوهُ لَعَلَّكُمْ تُفْلِحُونَ

 

مسند أحمد ط الرسالة (11/ 105)

عَنْ عَبْدِ اللهِ بْنِ عَمْرٍو، قَالَ: قَالَ رَسُولُ اللهِ صَلَّى اللهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ: " إِنَّ اللهَ حَرَّمَ عَلَى أُمَّتِي الْخَمْرَ وَالْمَيْسِرَ وَالْمِزْرَ وَالْكُوبَةَ وَالْقِنِّينَ وَزَادَنِي صَلَاةَ الْوَتْرِ "  قَالَ يَزِيدُ: " الْقِنِّينُ: الْبَرَابِطُ "

 

أحكام القرآن للجصاص ط العلمية (1/ 398)

وَلَا خِلَافَ بَيْنَ أَهْلِ الْعِلْمِ فِي تَحْرِيمِ الْقِمَارِ وَأَنَّ الْمُخَاطَرَةَ مِنْ الْقِمَارِ; قَالَ ابْن عَبَّاسٍ: إنَّ الْمُخَاطَرَةَ قِمَارٌ وَإِنَّ أَهْلَ الْجَاهِلِيَّةِ كَانُوا يُخَاطِرُونَ عَلَى الْمَالِ، وَالزَّوْجَةِ، وَقَدْ كَانَ ذَلِكَ مُبَاحًا إلَى أَنْ وَرَدَ تَحْرِيمُهُ

 

أحكام القرآن للجصاص ط العلمية (1/ 398)

وَلَا خِلَافَ بَيْنَ أَهْلِ الْعِلْمِ فِي تَحْرِيمِ الْقِمَارِ

 

صحيح مسلم (3/ 1218)

 حَدَّثَنَا عُثْمَانُ بْنُ أَبِي شَيْبَةَ، وَإِسْحَاقُ بْنُ إِبْرَاهِيمَ، وَاللَّفْظُ لِعُثْمَانَ، قَالَ إِسْحَاقُ: أَخْبَرَنَا، وَقَالَ عُثْمَانُ: حَدَّثَنَا جَرِيرٌ، عَنْ مُغِيرَةَ، قَالَ: سَأَلَ شِبَاكٌ إِبْرَاهِيمَ، فَحَدَّثَنَا عَنْ عَلْقَمَةَ، عَنْ عَبْدِ اللهِ، قَالَ: «لَعَنَ رَسُولُ اللهِ صَلَّى اللهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ آكِلَ الرِّبَا وَمُؤْكِلَهُ»، قَالَ: قُلْتُ: وَكَاتِبَهُ، وَشَاهِدَيْهِ؟ قَالَ: «إِنَّمَا نُحَدِّثُ بِمَا سَمِعْنَا»

 

 

 مسند أحمد ط الرسالة (9/ 122)

حَدَّثَنَا خَلَفُ بْنُ الْوَلِيدِ، حَدَّثَنَا أَبُو مَعْشَرٍ، عَنْ نَافِعٍ، عَنِ ابْنِ عُمَرَ قَالَ: مَرَّ رَسُولُ اللهِ صَلَّى اللهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ بِطَعَامٍ وَقَدْ حَسَّنَهُ صَاحِبُهُ، فَأَدْخَلَ يَدَهُ فِيهِ، فَإِذَا طَعَامٌ رَدِيءٌ فَقَالَ: " بِعْ هَذَا عَلَى حِدَةٍ، وَهَذَا عَلَى حِدَةٍ، فَمَنْ غَشَّنَا فَلَيْسَ مِنَّا "

 

كتاب النوازل (ج-11 ص-459)

 

 

 

 

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