Fatwa: # 42440
Category: Jurisprudence and Rulings...
Country:
Date: 10th February 2020

Title

Claiming Financial Support from Ex-husbands - Is it Halaal?

Question

Is it allowed in Islam, or in other words Is it halal in Islam:1. Lady with 4 kids got divorced officially, and claiming herself as a single mother, getting all the benefits from the government in Canada, as a single mother. 2. Then she got married according to Sharia, but no update of status to the government, and still getting all the benefit of a single mother.3. In this scenario, the money she is receiving from the government as a single mother benefit, as well as subsidized housing.4. Now she has divorced from the second husband too. She is now asking for the spousal support from both the first husband and the second husband. (Is this spousal support money allowed in Islam, and can she claim it?5. The second husband who got married to her, both came to know after a couple of years that the marriage which was done on telephone is not valid, because there were no witnesses, because both were refugees here, husband came from US as a refugee, and landed in Canada. Are the kids she have from the second husband halal, because the Nikkah was not valid as per the mufti’s that I consulted. Can she claim spousal support from the second husband,  if the nikkah was not a valid one according to the Sharia not according to the residing countries government!

Answer

In the Name of Allah, the Most Gracious, the Most Merciful.

As-salāmu ‘alaykum wa-rahmatullāhi wa-barakātuh.

There are two issues related to your query:

1.     Claiming spousal support from her ex-husbands

2.     Status of her second marriage and children

1. In principle, a man (ex-husband) is not financially responsible for his ex-wife after the completion of her Iddah.[i] He is not required by Shariah to provide any form of financial support for her. However, if they have children, the expenses of the children will be the responsibility of the father.[ii] Therefore, it will be permissible for the woman in reference to claim financial support from her first ex-husband to cover the expenses of his children. However, she is not entitled to any form of financial support from her ex-husband for her own personal expenses.

2. The presence of two witnesses is a pre-requisite for the validity of Nikah. This was not the case with the second marriage of the woman in reference. Hence, her Nikah to the second man was invalid (Nikah Faasid). Both she and the man should make sincere Tawba and Istighfaar for living together without a valid Nikah. However, the children borne of this marriage will still be Islamically attributed to their father.[iii] Accordingly, she may claim financial support from her second ex-husband to cover the expenses of his children, not her own personal expenses.

And Allah Ta’āla Knows Best

Hammad Ibn Ismail Jogiat

Student Darul Iftaa
Cambridge, Ontario, Canada

Checked and Approved by,
Mufti Ebrahim Desai.

 


 

مختصر القدوري (ص: 172) [i]

وإذا طلق الرجل امرأته فلها النفقة والسكنى في عدتها رجعيا كان أو بائنا

 

الفتاوى الهندية (1/ 557)

[الفصل الثالث في نفقة المعتدة]

 المعتدة عن الطلاق تستحق النفقة والسكنى كان الطلاق رجعيا أو بائنا، أو ثلاثا حاملا كانت المرأة، أو لم تكن كذا في فتاوى قاضي خان

 

اللباب في شرح الكتاب (3/ 93)

وإذا طلق الرجل امرأته فلها) عليه (النفقة والسكنى في) مدة (عدتها، رجعيا كان) الطلاق (أو بائنا) أما الرجعي فلأن النكاح بعده قائم لاسيما عندنا؛ فإنه يحل له الوطء، وأما البائن فلأن النفقة جزاء الاحتباس كما مر، والاحتباس قائم في حق حكم المقصود بالنكاح - وهو الولد - إذ العدة واجبة لصيانة الولد فتجب النفقة، ولهذا كان لها السكنى بالإجماع كما في الهداية

 

الأصل للشيباني ط قطر (10/ 363) [ii]

 وإنما نفقة الصبي على الأب ما دام صغيراً

 

شرح مختصر الطحاوي للجصاص (5/ 308)

مسألة: [وجوب نفقة الصغار على أبيهم ولو كان فقيرًا]

قال: (ولا يجبر فقير على نفقة أحد إلا الأب على ولده الصغار، وعلى زوجته، وأمه الفقيرة)

 

المحيط البرهاني في الفقه النعماني (3/ 566)

وأما إذا لم يكن للصبي مال فالنفقة على والده لا يشاركه أحد في ذلك؛

 

كتاب المسائل (ج:5 ص:477)

باپ پر نادار بچوں کے نفقہ کا وجوب

شریعت نے بچوں کی کفالت کی ذمہ داری باپ پر ڈالی ہے ؛ کیوںکہ وہی بچوں کی ضروریات سے زیادہ واقف ہوتا ہے ، اور فطری شفقت اسے بچوں کی خبرگیری پر آمادہ کرتی ہے ۔ اِسی لئے قرآنِ کریم میں بیویوں اور دودھ پلانے والی عورتوں کے نفقہ کا جہاں ذکر فرمایا ، وہاں ایسی تعبیر اختیار کی جس سے خود بخود بچوں کے نفقہ کی ذمہ داری باپ پر ہونے کا پتہ چلتا ہے ۔ چناںچہ فرمایا گیا :

فَاِنْ اَرْضَعْنَ لَکُمْ فَاٰتُوْہُنَّ اُجُوْرَہُنَّ ۔ ( الطلاق ، جزء آیت : ۶ )

پس اگر وہ ( بچوں کو ) دودھ پلائیں تمہاری خاطر ، تو اُن کا بدلہ اُنہیں عطا کرو

اِسی لئے دلالۃً یہ معلوم ہوا کہ جب بچوں کو دودھ پلانے والی عورتوں کی اُجرت باپ پر ہے ، تو بچوں کا نفقہ بدرجہ اولیٰ اُسی پر ہوگا ۔

 

فتاوى حقانية (ج:5 ص:31)

صورت مسءولہ من اس بچے کا خرچہ باپ کے ذمّہ ہو گا باپ حق حضانت کی وجہ سے بچے کے نفقہ سے بری نہیں ہو گا اور اس کا انکار درست نہیں ہے

 

الدر المختار وحاشية ابن عابدين (رد المحتار) (3/ 555) [iii]

(قوله: لأنه نكاح باطل) أي فالوطء فيه زنا لا يثبت به النسب، بخلاف الفاسد فإنه وطء بشبهة فيثبت به النسب ولذا تكون بالفاسد فراشا لا بالباطل رحمتي، والله سبحانه أعلم

 

بدائع الصنائع في ترتيب الشرائع (3/ 241)

والنسب يثبت بالنكاح الفاسد كما يثبت بالنكاح الصحيح

 

 

 

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