Category: Child Upbringing (Tarbiyyah)
Fatwa#: 41548
Asked Country: India

Answered Date: Dec 10,2018

Title: Should the adopted child observe Hijaab from the Parents ?

Question

السلام عليكم ورحمة الله وبركاته On the subject of adoption, If the couple has adopted a girl and raised her from the time she was small and now she becomes baligh, does she have to observe pardah from the father (the husband) and him from her? If yes how would a person manage that situation as it would be extremely for both after spending so much time bonding like father and daughter and living in the same house? Also if the ruling on that is that they have to make pardah, the adopted son from the mother and the adopted daughter from the father, then the question arises that it discourages many people from adopting children in a time also where there are many children and babies in need of adoption? جزاك الله خيراً

Answer

In the Name of Allah, the Most Gracious, the Most Merciful.

As-salāmu ‘alaykum wa-rahmatullāhi wa-barakātuh.

Adopting a child is a very virtuous and a commendable act. In fact, it is a Sunnah of Nabi (ﷺ). Nabi (ﷺ) adopted Hadhrat Zaid Bin Haaritha Radhiallahu Anhu. [1]

Consider the following Ahaadeeth:

 

عن أبي هريرة رضي الله عنه قال‏:‏ قال رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم‏:‏ ‏ "‏ كافل اليتيم له أو لغيره أنا وهو كهاتين في الجنة‏"‏ وأشار الراوي وهو مالك ابن أنس بالسبابة والوسطى‏

Translation: Messenger of Allah (ﷺ) said, "He who takes care of an orphan, whether he is his relative or a stranger, will be in Jannah with me like these two". The narrator, Malik bin Anas raised his forefinger and middle finger for illustration.

(Saheeh Al-Muslim) [2]

 

أَنَّ أَبَا حُذَيْفَةَ بْنَ عُتْبَةَ بْنِ رَبِيعَةَ بْنِ عَبْدِ شَمْسٍ، وَكَانَ مِمَّنْ شَهِدَ بَدْرًا مَعَ النَّبِيِّ صَلَّى اللهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ، تَبَنَّى سَالِمًا، وَأَنْكَحَهُ بِنْتَ أَخِيهِ هِنْدَ بِنْتَ الوَلِيدِ بْنِ عُتْبَةَ بْنِ رَبِيعَةَ وَهُوَ مَوْلًى لِامْرَأَةٍ مِنَ الأَنْصَارِ، كَمَا " تَبَنَّى النَّبِيُّ صَلَّى اللهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ زَيْدًا، وَكَانَ مَنْ تَبَنَّى رَجُلًا فِي الجَاهِلِيَّةِ دَعَاهُ النَّاسُ إِلَيْهِ وَوَرِثَ مِنْ مِيرَاثِهِ، حَتَّى أَنْزَلَ اللَّهُ {ادْعُوهُمْ لِآبَائِهِمْ} [الأحزاب: 5] إِلَى قَوْلِهِ {وَمَوَالِيكُمْ} [الأحزاب: 5] فَرُدُّوا إِلَى آبَائِهِمْ، فَمَنْ لَمْ يُعْلَمْ لَهُ أَبٌ، كَانَ مَوْلًى وَأَخًا فِي الدِّينِ

 

Translation: Abu Hudhaifa bin Utba who had witnessed the battle of Badr along with Nabi () adopted Salim as his son, to whom he married his niece, Hind bint Al-Walid; and Salim was the freed slave of Ansar woman, just as the Nabi () had adopted Zaid as his son. It was the custom in the Pre-Islamic period that if somebody adopted a boy, the people would call him the son of the adoptive father he would be the latter’s heir. However, when Allah revealed the Divine Verses: “Call them by their fathers’ name” (Surah Al-Ahzab Verse 5) the adopted person were called by their fathers’ names. The one whose father was not known, would be regarded as a Mawla and their brother in religion.

(Saheeh Al-Bukhari)

 

In principle, when the child reaches the age of puberty, he/she will have to observe Hijaab/Purdah and the child will be a Non Mahram. [3]

The boy will observe hijab from the Mother and the girl will observe hijab from the Father.

 

The method to avoid the laws of hijab is to adopt the child in infancy and the mother breastfeeds the child.  In doing so, they will become the foster parents and purdah will not be necessary between them. 

 

And Allah Ta’āla Knows Best

Muhammad I.V Patel

Student Darul Iftaa
Lusaka, Zambia

Checked and Approved by,
Mufti Ebrahim Desai.

 


[1]

المبسوط للسرخسي (4/ 200)

وَكَانَ «النَّبِيُّ - صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ - تَبَنَّى زَيْدَ بْنَ حَارِثَةَ

 

شرح النووي على مسلم (18/ 113) [2]

قَوْلُهُ صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ (كَافِلُ الْيَتِيمِ لَهُ أَوْ لِغَيْرِهِ أَنَا وَهُوَ كَهَاتَيْنِ فِي الْجَنَّةِ) كَافِلُ الْيَتِيمِ الْقَائِمُ بِأُمُورِهِ مِنْ نَفَقَةٍ وَكِسْوَةٍ وَتَأْدِيبٍ وَتَرْبِيَةٍ وَغَيْرِ ذَلِكَ وَهَذِهِ الْفَضِيلَةُ تَحْصُلُ لِمَنْ كَفَلَهُ مِنْ مَالِ نَفْسِهِ أَوْ مِنْ مَالِ الْيَتِيمِ بِوِلَايَةٍ شَرْعِيَّةٍ وَأَمَّا قَوْلُهُ لَهُ أَوْ لِغَيْرِهِ فَاَلَّذِي لَهُ أَنْ يَكُونَ قَرِيبًا لَهُ كَجَدِّهِ وَأُمِّهِ وَجَدَّتِهِ وَأَخِيهِ وَأُخْتِهِ وَعَمِّهِ وَخَالِهِ وَعَمَّتِهِ وَخَالَتِهِ وَغَيْرِهِمْ مِنْ أَقَارِبِهِ وَاَلَّذِي لِغَيْرِهِ أَنْ يَكُونَ أَجْنَبِيًّا

 

شرح سنن أبي داود لابن رسلان (19/ 434)

(كهاتين في الجنة) قال القرطبي: أي: هو معه في الجنة وبحضرته، غير أن كل واحد منهما على درجته فيها؛ إذ لا يبلغ درجة الأنبياء غيرهم، ولا يبلغ درجة نبينا -صلى اللَّه عليه وسلم-أحد من الأنبياء. وإلى هذا الإشارة بقرانه بين [إصبعيه]

(وفرق بين أصبعيه الوسطى والتي تلي الإبهام) وفرق وقرن فيهم من الجمع بينهما المعية والحضور، ومن تفاوت ما بينهما بالطول والقصر اختصاص كل واحد منهما بمنزلته ودرجته، وقد نص على هذا قوله -صلى اللَّه عليه وسلم-في الحديث المتقدم: "المرء مع من أحب"

 

٤٨٤ فتاؤي عثماني جلد ٢   ص [3]

كفاية المفتي ج ٥   ص ٢٧٦   

کتاب النوازل جلد ١٥

لے پالک لڑکا حقیقی بیٹے کے حکم میں نہیں ہے؛ لہٰذا اگر وہ بالغ ہے تو اُس سے پردہ لازم ہے۔

 

کتاب المسائل جلد ٤

لے پالک بیٹی یا بیٹا حرام نہیں
اگر کسی شخص نے نامحرم لڑکی کو بیٹی بناکر پالا ہے یا عورت نے نامحرم لڑکے کو بیٹا بناکر پالا ہے تو اُس سے کوئی حرمت لازم نہیں آتی ۔ (مسائل بہشتی زیور ۴۵۹) 
قال الله تعالیٰ : { وَمَا جَعَلَ اَدْعِیَآئَ کُمْ اَبْنَآئَ کُمْ ذٰلِکُمْ قَوْلُکُمْ بِاَفْوَاهكم } [ الاحزاب ، جزء آیت : ۳ ] 
{ وَمَا جَعَلَ اَدْعِیَآئَ کُمْ اَبْنَآئَ کُمْ } فلا یثبت بالتبنی شيء من أحکام البنو من الإرث وحرمة النکاح وغیر ذٰلک ۔ ( تفسیر مظهري ۷ ؍ ۲۹۲ ) 
قوله تعالیٰ : { اَلَّذِیْنَ مِنْ اَصْلاَبِکُمْ } تخصیص لیخرج عنه کل من کانت العرب تتبنَّأه ممن لیس للصلب ۔ (الجامع لأحکام القرآن الکریم للقرطبي ۳ ؍ ۱۰۲ دار الفکر بیروت )  

 

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