Fatwa: # 41521
Category: Marriage (Nikah)
Country: Australia
Date: 3rd February 2019

Title

Making the brother the Wali whilst the grandfather is alive

Question

Question on wali for nikah Assalamualaikum, My boyfriend and I would like to get married and have gotten consent from our parents who approve of our union. We both live in Australia, however I was born overseas and most of my family are not in Australia. My father passed away many years ago, and so my wali is my paternal grandfather- who is too old and sickly to travel to another continent for our nikah. My brother would be next in line, and I also have a paternal uncle who can attend. I would like to know if I require written consent from my grandfather as my wali, or if my brother can perform that role - all of them would have to fly in from overseas. I thank you for your response. Sincerely, Shana Norhadi Melbourne, Australia

Answer

In the Name of Allaah, the Most Gracious, the Most Merciful.

As-salāmu ‘alaykum wa-rahmatullāhi wa-barakātuh.

 

According to the Hanafi Madhab (school of thought), an adult female has independent right to marry herself to a person who is Kufu (compatible in terms of family status). In this instance, she does not require the consent or presence of her Wali (guardian). If she marries a person who is not her Kuffu, then the consent of her Wali in necessary.

According to our understanding of your situation, your family members approve of the marriage with the boy. That is sufficient. It is not necessary for your grandfather or brother to be present at the Nikaah. The Nikaah in the absence of the Wali will be valid. There is no need to incur travel expenses for your brother and other family members.

 

1)    A mature girl may independently marry herself off and the Nikaah will be valid provided it was in the presence of two male witnesses or one male and two female witnesses. [1]  However, it is preferable for her to get her Wali’s approval. [2]

 

2)    It is not a requirement for the Wali to be present at the time of Nikaah. He may approve of the Nikaah without being present at the Nikaah ceremony.[3]

Accordingly, there is no need for your grandfather to travel to Australia to approve of your Nikaah.

3)    You may also make your brother your Wali if you wish.[4]

 

And Allaah Ta’aala Knows Best

Muhammed Al-Ameen Bin Moulana Ismail Akoo

 

Student, Darul Iftaa

Newcastle; KZN, South Africa

 

Checked and Approved by,
Mufti Ebrahim Desai.

 


[1]

رد المحتار على الدر المختار\ باب الولي

ج 8\ص 186 (فرفور)

 

( وَهُوَ ) أَيْ الْوَلِيُّ ( شَرْطُ ) صِحَّةِ ( نِكَاحِ صَغِيرٍ وَمَجْنُونٍ وَرَقِيقٍ ) لَا مُكَلَّفَةٍ ( فَنَفَذَ نِكَاحُ حُرَّةٍ مُكَلَّفَةٍ بِلَا ) رِضَا ( وَلِيٍّ )

 

اللباب في شرح الكتاب

 ينعقد نكاح المراة الحرة البالغة العاقلة برضاها فقط سواء باشرته بنفسها أو وكلت غيرها و أن لم يعقد عليها ولى و لم ياذن به

 

[2]

تبيين الحقائق شرح كنز الدقائق وحاشية الشلبي (2/ 117)

 الولاية في النكاح نوعان: ولاية ندب واستحباب وهو الولاية على البالغة العاقلة بكرا كانت أو ثيبا

 

درر الحكام شرح غرر الأحكام (1/ 334)

(قَوْلُهُ: الْوَلِيُّ شَرْطُ صِحَّةِ النِّكَاحِ. . . إلَخْ) هَذَا أَحَدُ نَوْعَيْ الْوِلَايَةِ فِي النِّكَاحِ؛ لِأَنَّ الْوِلَايَةَ فِيهِ نَوْعَانِ الْأَوَّلُ وِلَايَةُ نَدْبٍ وَاسْتِحْبَابٍ وَهُوَ الْوِلَايَةُ عَلَى الْبَالِغَةِ الْعَاقِلَةِ، وَالثَّانِي وِلَايَةُ إجْبَارٍ وَهُوَ الْوِلَايَةُ عَلَى الصَّغِيرَةِ وَالْمَعْتُوهَةِ وَالرَّقِيقَةِ،

[3]

تبيين الحقائق شرح كنز الدقائق وحاشية الشلبي (2/ 119)

 ثم المخبر إن كان هو الولي فعلى ما ذكرنا ورسول الولي كالولي

 

[4]

المحيط البرهاني في الفقه النعماني (3/ 55)

وإنما جعل السكوت من البكر البالغة إذناً إذا كان المستأمر وليّاً، أو كان ولياً إلا أن هناك وليٌّ وآخر وهو أقرب إلى المرأة من هذا الولي المستأمر، فالسكوت لا يكون إذناً في حق الولي المستأمر إلا إذا كان الولي المستأمر رسول الولي.

 

العناية شرح الهداية (3/ 266)

(وَإِنْ فَعَلَ هَذَا) يَعْنِي الِاسْتِئْمَارَ وَالِاسْتِئْذَانَ (غَيْرُ وَلِيٍّ) وَهُوَ الْأَجَانِبُ أَوْ قَرِيبٌ لَيْسَ بِوَلِيٍّ بِأَنْ كَانَ كَافِرًا أَوْ عَبْدًا أَوْ مُكَاتَبًا (أَوْ وَلِيُّ غَيْرِهِ أَوْلَى مِنْهُ) كَاسْتِئْذَانِ الْأَخِ مَعَ وُجُودِ الْأَبِ (لَا يَكُونُ رِضًا حَتَّى تَتَكَلَّمَ بِهِ لِأَنَّ هَذَا السُّكُوتَ لِقِلَّةِ الِالْتِفَاتِ إلَى كَلَامِهِ فَلَمْ يَقَعْ دَلَالَةً عَلَى الرِّضَا) وَقَوْلُهُ (وَلَوْ وَقَعَ) أَيْ السُّكُوتُ دَلِيلًا (فَهُوَ) دَلِيلٌ (مُحْتَمَلٌ) يَحْتَمِلُ الْإِذْنَ وَالرَّدَّ (وَالِاكْتِفَاءُ بِمِثْلِهِ) فِي الدَّلَالَةِ (لِلْحَاجَةِ وَلَا حَاجَةَ فِي حَقِّ غَيْرِ الْأَوْلِيَاءِ) لِأَنَّهُ فُضُولِيٌّ، أَوْ فِي حَقِّ وَلِيِّ غَيْرِهِ أَحَقُّ لِعَدَمِ الِالْتِفَاتِ إلَى كَلَامِهِ (بِخِلَافِ مَا إذَا كَانَ الْمُسْتَأْمِرُ رَسُولَ الْوَلِيِّ لِأَنَّهُ قَائِمٌ مَقَامَهُ) وَقَوْلُهُ (وَيُعْتَبَرُ فِي الِاسْتِئْمَارِ تَسْمِيَةُ الزَّوْجِ) يَعْنِي إذَا اسْتَأْمَرَ فَلَا بُدَّ أَنْ يُسَمَّى الزَّوْجُ عَلَى وَجْهٍ تَعْرِفُهُ، أَمَّا إذَا أَبْهَمَ وَقَالَ إنِّي أُزَوِّجُك رَجُلًا فَسَكَتَتْ لَا يَكُونُ السُّكُوتُ رِضًا.

 

الدر المختار وحاشية ابن عابدين (رد المحتار) (3/ 62)

(قَوْلُهُ كَأَجْنَبِيٍّ) الْمُرَادُ بِهِ مَنْ لَيْسَ لَهُ وِلَايَةٌ فَشَمِلَ الْأَبَ إذَا كَانَ كَافِرًا أَوْ عَبْدًا أَوْ مُكَاتَبًا لَكِنَّ رَسُولَ الْوَلِيِّ قَائِمٌ مُقَامَهُ فَيَكُونُ سُكُوتُهَا رِضًا عِنْدَ اسْتِئْذَانِهِ كَمَا فِي الْفَتْحِ وَالْوَكِيلُ كَذَلِكَ كَمَا فِي الْبَحْرِ عَنْ الْقُنْيَةِ (قَوْلُهُ أَوْ وَلِيٍّ بَعِيدٍ) كَالْأَخِ مَعَ الْأَبِ إذَا لَمْ يَكُنْ الْأَبُ غَائِبًا غَيْبَةً مُنْقَطِعَةً كَمَا فِي الْخَانِيَّ

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