Category: Business Matters
Fatwa#: 41069
Asked Country: Iceland

Answered Date: Oct 24,2018

Title: Client Refuses Service After Paying

Question

Assalamu Alaikum


What is the Islamic rulings in the following cases


1) Zaid subscribes for a 1 year pool cleaning service. Once a week the company has to clean Zaid's pool. The service costs R100 per clean. One week Zaid was not at home on the day the company was supposed to clean the pool. He did not inform the cleaning company in advance that he will not be at home. The pool company could not clean the pool on that week because they could not gain entry into the premises as Zaid was not at home. Is Zaid entitled to claim that week's fee since the company did not clean his pool on that week?


2) Zaid booked a flight from Johannesburg to Jeddah on the Saudi Airlines website. He did not pitch up for the flight. He did not inform Saudi Airlines that he will not be able to make it for flight. Is he entitled to claim a refund from Saudi Airlines because he was not on the flight? 


3) Zaid buys a R50 airtime voucher from a Vodacom store. He does not load the airtime on his phone before the expiry of the voucher. Is he entitled to claim his money back from the store? 


Jazakallahu Khairan

Answer

In the Name of Allah, the Most Gracious, the Most Merciful.

As-salāmu ‘alaykum wa-rahmatullāhi wa-barakātuh.

All three rulings are the same.

In principle, if a person hires the services of a company and the company makes the service available, the company will be entitled to payment even if the client does not use the service of the company.[1]

 

And Allah Ta‘ālā Knows Best.

 

Checked and Approved by:
Mufti Ebrahim Desai.

 



[1]

درر الحكام في شرح مجلة الأحكام (١/٤٥٣-٤٥٤)  

(الْمَادَّةُ 422): ...لَوْ اُسْتُؤْجِرَ أَحَدُ هَؤُلَاءِ عَلَى أَنْ يَعْمَلَ لِلْمُسْتَأْجِرِ إلَى وَقْتٍ مُعَيَّنٍ يَكُونُ أَجِيرًا خَاصًّا فِي مُدَّةِ ذَلِكَ الْوَقْتِ.

درر الحكام في شرح مجلة الأحكام (1/ 458)

[(الْمَادَّةُ 425) الْأَجِيرُ يَسْتَحِقُّ الْأُجْرَةَ إذَا كَانَ فِي مُدَّةِ الْإِجَارَةِ حَاضِرًا لِلْعَمَلِ]

الْأَجِيرُ يَسْتَحِقُّ الْأُجْرَةَ إذَا كَانَ فِي مُدَّةِ الْإِجَارَةِ حَاضِرًا لِلْعَمَلِ وَلَا يُشْرَطُ عَمَلُهُ بِالْفِعْلِ وَلَكِنْ لَيْسَ لَهُ أَنْ يَمْتَنِعَ عَنْ الْعَمَلِ وَإِذَا امْتَنَعَ لَا يَسْتَحِقُّ الْأُجْرَةَ.

وَمَعْنَى كَوْنِهِ حَاضِرًا لِلْعَمَلِ أَنْ يُسَلِّمَ نَفْسَهُ لِلْعَمَلِ وَيَكُونَ قَادِرًا وَفِي حَالِ تَمَكُّنِهِ مِنْ إيفَاءِ ذَلِكَ الْعَمَلِ.

... وَإِنَّمَا لَا يُشْتَرَطُ عَمَلُ الْأَجِيرِ الْخَاصِّ بِالْفِعْلِ كَمَا وَرَدَ فِي هَذِهِ الْمَادَّةِ؛ لِأَنَّهُ لَمَّا كَانَتْ مَنَافِعُ الْأَجِيرِ مُدَّةَ الْإِجَارَةِ مُسْتَحَقَّةً لِلْمُسْتَأْجِرِ وَتِلْكَ الْمَنَافِعُ قَدْ تُهُيِّئَتْ وَالْأُجْرَةُ مُقَابِلُ الْمَنَافِعِ، فَالْمُسْتَأْجِرُ إذَا قَصَّرَ فِي اسْتِعْمَالِ الْأَجِيرِ وَلَمْ يَكُنْ لِلْأَجِيرِ مَانِعٌ حِسِّيٌّ عَنْ الْعَمَلِ كَمَرَضٍ وَمَطَرٍ فَلِلْأَجِيرِ أَخْذُ الْأُجْرَةِ وَلَوْ لَمْ يَعْمَلَ (الزَّيْلَعِيُّ)

بدائع الصنائع - ث (٤/١٧٩)

 وَنَعْنِي بِالتَّسْلِيمِ التَّخْلِيَةَ وَالتَّمْكِينَ من الِانْتِفَاعِ بِرَفْعِ الْمَوَانِعِ في إجَارَةِ الْمَنَازِلِ وَنَحْوِهَا وَعَبِيدِ الْخِدْمَةِ وَأَجِيرِ الواحد ( ( ( الوحد ) ) ) حتى لو انْقَضَتْ الْمُدَّةُ من غَيْرِ تَسْلِيمِ الْمُسْتَأْجَرِ على التَّفْسِيرِ الذي ذَكَرْنَا لَا يَسْتَحِقُّ شيئا من الْأَجْرِ لِأَنَّ الْمُسْتَأْجِرَ لم يَمْلِكْ من الْمَعْقُودِ عليه شيئا فَلَا يَمْلِكُ هو أَيْضًا شيئا من الْأَجْرِ لِأَنَّهُ مُعَاوَضَةٌ مُطْلَقَةٌ

بدائع الصنائع - ث (٤/١٧٩)

وَلَوْ أَجَرَ الْمَنْزِلَ فَارِغًا وسلم الْمِفْتَاحَ إلَى الْمُسْتَأْجِرِ فلم يُفْتَحْ الْبَابُ حتى مَضَتْ الْمُدَّةُ لَزِمَهُ كُلُّ الْأَجْرِ لِوُجُودِ التَّسْلِيمِ وهو التَّمْكِينُ من الِانْتِفَاعِ بِرَفْعِ الْمَوَانِعِ في جَمِيعِ الْمُدَّةِ فَحَدَثَتْ الْمَنَافِعُ في مِلْكِ الْمُسْتَأْجِرِ فَهَلَكَتْ على مِلْكِهِ فَلَا يَسْقُطُ عنه الْأَجْرُ كَالْبَائِعِ إذَا سَلَّمَ الْمَبِيعَ إلَى الْمُشْتَرِي بِالتَّخْلِيَةِ فَهَلَكَ في يَدِ الْبَائِعِ كان الْهَلَاكُ على الْمُشْتَرِي لِأَنَّهُ هَلَكَ على مِلْكِهِ كَذَا هذا

شرح مختصر الطحاوي للجصاص (٣/٣٩٤)

مسألة: [استحقاق الأجر بالتسليم]

قال: (وإن قادرها إلى ذلك المكان، ولم يركبها: فعليه الأجر).

لأن التسليم قد وجد في الأماكن المستأجر إليها، وبه يستحق الأجر، لا بالركوب، كما يستحق أجر الدار بالتسليم، لا بالسكنى.

الهداية في شرح بداية المبتدي (٣/٢٣١)

"وإذا قبض المستأجر الدار فعليه الأجر وإن لم يسكنها"؛ لأن تسليم عين المنفعة لا يتصور فأقمنا تسليم المحل مقامه إذ التمكن من الانتفاع يثبت به.

 

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