Category: Misc. Fiqh
Fatwa#: 40995
Asked Country: United Kingdom

Answered Date: Sep 19,2018

Title: Vows to refrain from sin

Question

In order to deter myself from committing sinful deeds I have several times given my word to Allah that I will not commit certain deeds. I have repeatedly given in to my desires and broken my word to Allah, many times repenting again and again and repeating these vows/oaths and breaking them again and again. Due to wanting to deter myself from committing these deeds, I have even given my word for Allah to punish me if I committed such deeds, even on different occasions specifying punishments to be inflicted upon me, such as death for example, and giving my word to Allah on such things. This I may have done on several different occasions in the past. Yet out of my weaknesses and shortcomings I have committed these sins again and again.  I have repented to Allah on each occasion and repented for making such oaths after breaking them (in relation to being inflicted with punishments, specified punishments and for the evil deeds that I have committed). I am aware that I need to seek expiation for breaking all my oaths to Allah but due to the number of times I have made oaths in the past and broken them, I do not know the number of times I have broken my oaths to Allah and as with many of these oaths they were broken and then restated by me and broken again and again. Please advise me on what I should do.

 

In a few instances I may have even said after committing certain deeds that I said I would not and had broken my word to Allah by doing so that ‘O Allah I shall fast for 3 days’ or words to this affect/intention made. I cannot remember the amount of times I had said this. Does this also count as an oath?

Answer

In the Name of Allaah, the Most Gracious, the Most Merciful.

As-salaamu ‘alaykum wa-rahmatullaahi wa-barakaatuh.

Brother in Islaam,

As humans we are prone to sin, but the best of sinners is the one who repents and turns to Allaah Ta’aala. He is Ar-Rahmaan, the Most-Merciful, Al-Ghaffaar, the Oft-Forgiving.

Reflect upon the following. Allaah Ta’aala says,

قُلْ يَاعِبَادِيَ الَّذِينَ أَسْرَفُوا عَلَى أَنْفُسِهِمْ لَا تَقْنَطُوا مِنْ رَحْمَةِ اللَّهِ إِنَّ اللَّهَ يَغْفِرُ الذُّنُوبَ جَمِيعًا إِنَّهُ هُوَ الْغَفُورُ الرَّحِيمُ 

Translation: “Say (O Prophet): (Allaah declares to humanity) O My beloved servants! Those (of you) who have committed (sins in great) excess against their own souls, never despond of the mercy of Allaah! For, indeed, Allaah forgives the sins, one and all. Indeed, it is He (alone) who is All-Forgiving, the Mercy-Giving.[1]” (Az-Zumar v.53)

Rasulullaah (Sallallaahu ‘alaihi wasallam) said,

قال الله تبارك وتعالى: يا ابن آدم إنك ما دعوتني ورجوتني غفرت لك على ما كان فيك ولا أبالي، يا ابن آدم لو بلغت ذنوبك عنان السماء ثم استغفرتني غفرت لك، ولا أبالي، يا ابن آدم إنك لو أتيتني بقراب الأرض خطايا ثم لقيتني لا تشرك بي شيئا لأتيتك بقرابها مغفرة[2]

Translation: “Allaah, Blessed is He and Most High, said: ‘O son of Adam! Verily as long as you call upon Me and hope in Me, I will forgive you, despite whatever may have occurred from you, and I do not mind. O son of Adam! If your sins were to reach the clouds of the sky, then you were to seek forgiveness from Me, I will forgive you, and I do not mind. O son of Adam! If you come to me with sins nearly as great as the earth, and then you meet Me not associating anything with Me (as partners), I will come to you with forgiveness nearly as great as it.” (Tirmidhi 5408)

 

Nevertheless, it is not clear what you mean by you “given my word to Allah”. If you took an oath with the name of Allaah Ta’aala, kaffaarah[3] will be binding upon you for each oath taken. You state that you do not recall the number of oaths you have taken. You should apply your discretion and decide on what is most probable.  

In the second paragraph, you refer to nadhr (vow). In this instance too, you do not recall the amount. You should apply your discretion and decide on what is most probable and thereafter fast three days for each vow taken[4].

We advise you to refrain from taking such daring oaths. We are not aware of the nature of the sin you refer to. Hence, we cannot advise with solutions in overcoming it. You may revert to us at admin@daruliftaa.net for our advice.

It is praiseworthy to note that you are trying to rectify yourself. However, in doing so, you should not adopt methods of your own. You should seek help from a righteous spiritual guide.

You may also listen to the discourses of my honorable teacher, Mufti Ebrahim Desai (Hafizahullaah) on the Qaseedah Burdah: https://daruliftaa.net/qaseeda-burdah/

 

And Allaah Ta’aala Knows Best.

Muajul I. Chowdhury

Student, Darul Iftaa

Astoria, New York, USA

 

Checked and Approved by,
Mufti Ebrahim Desai.

 



[1] Adapted from The Gracious Quran by Ahmad Zaki Hammad

[2] سنن الترمذي (5/ 548)

3540 - حدثنا عبد الله بن إسحاق الجوهري البصري قال: حدثنا أبو عاصم قال: حدثنا كثير بن فائد قال: حدثنا سعيد بن عبيد، قال: سمعت بكر بن عبد الله المزني، يقول: حدثنا أنس بن مالك، قال: سمعت رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم يقول: " قال الله تبارك وتعالى: يا ابن آدم إنك ما دعوتني ورجوتني غفرت لك على ما كان فيك ولا أبالي، يا ابن آدم لو بلغت ذنوبك عنان السماء ثم استغفرتني غفرت لك، ولا أبالي، يا ابن آدم إنك لو أتيتني بقراب الأرض خطايا ثم لقيتني لا تشرك بي شيئا لأتيتك بقرابها مغفرة ": هذا حديث حسن غريب لا نعرفه إلا من هذا الوجه

[3]You may refer to the following link for details on oaths and vows: http://www.askimam.org/public/question_detail/17899

 

[4] الهداية في شرح بداية المبتدي (2/ 321)

وإن علق النذر بشرط فوجد الشرط فعليه الوفاء بنفس النذر " لإطلاق الحديث ولأن المعلق بشرط كالمنجز عنده "

 

المختار (4/ 77)

ولو نذر نذرا مطلقا فعليه الوفاء به، وكذلك إن علقه بشرط فوجد وعن أبي حنيفة - رحمه الله - آخرا: أنه يجزئه - كفارة يمين إذا كان شرطا لا يريد وجوده،

 

الاختيار لتعليل المختار (4/ 77)

(وعن أبي حنيفة - رحمه الله - آخرا: أنه يجزئه كفارة يمين إذا كان شرطا لا يريد وجوده) كقوله: إن كلمت فلانا أو دخلت الدار فعلي صوم سنة أو صدقة ما أملكه، وهو قول محمد - رحمه الله -، واختاره بعض المشايخ للبلوى والضرورة، ولو أدى ما التزمه يخرج عن العهدة أيضا لأن فيه معنى اليمين وهو المنع، وهو نذر لفظا فيختار أي الجهتين شاء

 

النتف في الفتاوى للسغدي (1/ 194)

النذور في الطاعة: فأما النذور في الطاعة فعلى ثلاثة أوجه...والثالث ان يقول ان فعلت كذا فلله على ان اصوم او اصلي كذا او مالي للمساكين فاذا فعل ذلك الفعل يلزمه ذلك الصوم او الصلاة في قول الفقهاء وفي قول الشافعي تلزمه كفارة واحدة وان شاء فعل الصوم والصلاة

 

النهر الفائق شرح كنز الدقائق (3/ 62)

(ومن نذر نذرا مطلقا، أو معلقا بشرط) يراد كونه أو لا (ووجد) الشرط (وفي) المنذور هذا ظاهر الرواية لقوله عليه الصلاة والسلام: (من نذر وسمى فعليه الوفاء بما سمى)

 

الدر المختار شرح تنوير الأبصار وجامع البحار (ص: 284)

(ومن نذر نذرا مطلقا أو معلقا بشرط وكان من جنسه واجب) أي فرض كما سيصرح به تبعا ل (البحر) و (الدرر) (وهو عبادة مقصودة) خرج الوضوء وتكفين الميت

(ووجد الشرط) المعلق به (لزم الناذر) لحديث من نذر وسمى فعليه الوفاء بما سمى (كصوم وصلاة وصدقة) ووقف (واعتكاف) وإعتاق رقبة وحج ولو ماشيا فإنها عبادات مقصودة

 

 

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