Category: Marriage & Divorce
Fatwa#: 40984
Asked Country: Australia

Answered Date: Sep 11,2018

Title: Should the words of offer and acceptance in nikah be in past tense?

Question

Assalamoalaikum, I was reading about nikkah procedure and offer and acceptance and found out that the wording should be in past tense. What i roughly remember in my nikkah is that when molvi asked infront of witnesses from my husband he said hanjee qabool or qabool hai ( my husband speaks english and i think it was also translated to him) then he said qabool hai etc. And when they came to me in my room and asked me about my husband and i said qabool hai three times infront of witnesses. Both of us said qabool infront of witnesses. Does wording count as we both accepted each other in nikkah infront of witnesses? Is nikkah valid if we both used present tense? And also i do not know whether my husband was asked first or me at the time of Nikkah as it was long time ago.

Answer

In the Name of Allah, the Most Gracious, the Most Merciful.

As-salāmu ‘alaykum wa-rahmatullāhi wa-barakātuh.

Sister in Islam,

Nikah is valid if both spouses use present tense. “Qabool hai” is present tense. Therefore, the Nikah was valid.

And Allah Ta’āla Knows Best

Tareque Ahmed

Student Darul Iftaa
New York, USA

Checked and Approved by,
Mufti Ebrahim Desai.

________________________

الجوهرة النيرة على مختصر القدوري (2/ 2)

قَالَ - رَحِمَهُ اللَّهُ - (النِّكَاحُ يَنْعَقِدُ بِالْإِيجَابِ وَالْقَبُولِ) لِأَنَّهُ عَقْدٌ فَافْتَقَرَ إلَى الْإِيجَابِ وَالْقَبُولِ كَعَقْدِ الْبَيْعِ لِأَنَّ الْبُضْعَ عَلَى مِلْكِ الْمَرْأَةِ وَالْمَالُ يَثْبُتُ فِي مُقَابَلَتِهِ فَلَمْ يَكُنْ بُدٌّ مِنْ إيجَابٍ مِنْ الْمَرْأَةِ أَوْ مِمَّنْ يَلِي عَلَيْهَا وَقَبُولٍ مِنْ الزَّوْجِ قَوْلُهُ (بِلَفْظَيْنِ) وَقَدْ يَنْعَقِدُ بِلَفْظٍ وَاحِدٍ مِثْلُ ابْنِ الْعَمِّ يُزَوِّجُ ابْنَةَ عَمِّهِ مِنْ نَفْسِهِ فَإِنَّهُ يَكْفِيهِ أَنْ يَقُولَ بِحَضْرَةِ شَاهِدَيْنِ إنِّي تَزَوَّجْتُ بِهَذِهِ وَكَذَا إذَا كَانَ وَلِيَّ صَغِيرَيْنِ أَوْ وَكِيلًا مِنْ الْجَانِبَيْنِ كَفَاهُ أَنْ يَقُولَ زَوَّجْتُ هَذِهِ مِنْ هَذَا وَلَا يَحْتَاجُ إلَى قَبُولٍ عِنْدَنَا خِلَافًا لِزُفَرَ وَكَذَا إذَا زَوَّجَ أَمَتَهُ مِنْ عَبْدِهِ يَعْنِي الصَّغِيرَيْنِ قَوْلُهُ (يُعَبَّرُ بِهِمَا عَنْ الْمَاضِي) أَيْ يُبَيَّنُ بِهِمَا وَالتَّعْبِيرُ هُوَ الْبَيَانُ قَالَ اللَّهُ تَعَالَى {إِنْ كُنْتُمْ لِلرُّؤْيَا تَعْبُرُونَ} [يوسف: 43] أَيْ تُبَيِّنُونَ قَوْلُهُ (أَوْ يُعَبَّرُ بِأَحَدِهِمَا عَنْ الْمَاضِي وَالْآخَرِ عَنْ الْمُسْتَقْبَلِ مِثْلُ أَنْ يَقُولَ زَوِّجْنِي فَيَقُولُ قَدْ زَوَّجْتُك) وَهَذَا اسْتِحْسَانٌ وَالْقِيَاسُ أَنْ لَا يَجُوزَ لِأَنَّ الْمُسْتَقْبَلَ اسْتِفْهَامٌ وَعِدَةٌ فَلَا يَنْعَقِدُ بِهِ. وَجْهُ الِاسْتِحْسَانِ أَنَّ النِّكَاحَ لَا يَقَعُ فِيهِ الْمُسَاوَمَةُ فَكَانَ الْقَصْدُ بِلَفْظِهِ الْإِيجَابَ فَصَارَ بِمَنْزِلَةِ الْمَاضِي وَقَوْلُهُ وَالْآخَرِ عَنْ الْمُسْتَقْبَلِ يُرِيدُ بِالْمُسْتَقْبَلِ لَفْظَ الْأَمْرِ مِثْلُ زَوِّجْنِي.

الدر المختار وحاشية ابن عابدين (رد المحتار) (3/ 9)

(وَيَنْعَقِدُ) مُتَلَبِّسًا (بِإِيجَابٍ) مِنْ أَحَدِهِمَا (وَقَبُولٍ) مِنْ الْآخِرِ (وَضْعًا لِلْمُضِيِّ) لِأَنَّ الْمَاضِيَ أَدَلُّ عَلَى التَّحْقِيقِ (كَزَوَّجْتُ) نَفْسِي أَوْ بِنْتِي أَوْ مُوَكِّلَتِي مِنْك (وَ) يَقُولُ الْآخَرُ (تَزَوَّجْت، وَ) يَنْعَقِدُ أَيْضًا (بِمَا) أَيْ بِلَفْظَيْنِ (وُضِعَ أَحَدُهُمَا لَهُ) لِلْمُضِيِّ (وَالْآخَرُ لِلِاسْتِقْبَالِ) أَوْ لِلْحَالِ، فَالْأَوَّلُ الْأَمْرُ (كَزَوِّجْنِي) أَوْ زَوِّجِينِي نَفْسَك أَوْ كُونِي امْرَأَتِي فَإِنَّهُ لَيْسَ بِإِيجَابٍ بَلْ هُوَ تَوْكِيلٌ ضِمْنِيٌّ (فَإِذَا قَالَ) فِي الْمَجْلِسِ (زَوَّجْت) أَوْ قَبِلْت أَوْ بِالسَّمْعِ وَالطَّاعَةِ بَزَّازِيَّةٌ قَامَ مَقَامَ الطَّرَفَيْنِ وَقِيلَ هُوَ إيجَابٌ وَرَجَّحَهُ فِي الْبَحْرِ وَالثَّانِي الْمُضَارِعُ الْمَبْدُوءُ بِهَمْزَةٍ أَوْ نُونٍ أَوْ تَاءٍ كَتُزَوِّجِينِي نَفْسَك إذَا لَمْ يَنْوِ الِاسْتِقْبَالَ، وَكَذَا أَنَا مُتَزَوِّجُك أَوْ جِئْتُك خَاطِبًا لِعَدَمِ جَرَيَانِ الْمُسَاوَمَةِ فِي النِّكَاحِ أَوْ هَلْ أَعْطَيْتنِيهَا إنْ الْمَجْلِسُ لِلنِّكَاحِ، وَإِنْ لِلْوَعْدِ فَوَعْدٌ؛ وَلَوْ قَالَ لَهَا يَا عَرُوسِي فَقَالَتْ لَبَّيْكَ انْعَقَدَ عَلَى الْمَذْهَبِ

الدر المختار وحاشية ابن عابدين (رد المحتار) (3/ 16)

(وَإِنَّمَا يَصِحُّ بِلَفْظِ تَزْوِيجٍ وَنِكَاحٍ) لِأَنَّهُمَا صَرِيحٌ (وَمَا) عَدَاهُمَا كِنَايَةٌ هُوَ كُلُّ لَفْظٍ (وُضِعَ لِتَمْلِيكِ عَيْنٍ) كَامِلَةٍ فَلَا يَصِحُّ بِالشَّرِكَةِ

الدر المختار وحاشية ابن عابدين (رد المحتار) (3/ 16)

(قَوْلُهُ: وُضِعَ لِتَمْلِيكِ عَيْنٍ) خَرَجَ مَا لَا يُفِيدُ التَّمْلِيكَ أَصْلًا كَالرَّهْنِ الْوَدِيعَةِ، وَمَا يُفِيدُ تَمْلِيكَ الْمَنْفَعَةِ كَالْإِجَارَةِ وَالْإِعَارَةِ كَمَا يَأْتِي

احسن الفتاوى 38/5

نکاح میں ایجاب و قبول کے لئے الفاظ قبلت وتزوجت ونکحت کے علاوہ ایسے الفاظ ضروری ہیں جو ملک مؤبدہ پر دلالت کرتے ہوں

 

 

 

 

 

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