Category: Marriage & Divorce
Fatwa#: 40901
Asked Country: Australia

Answered Date: Sep 25,2018

Title: Question in regards to Ila

Question

Urgent please reply soon AssalamoAlaikum 1. My question is in regards to Ila. If a husband says “a) I am not gonna do it (sex)tonight or b) I am not gonna do it(sex) now as u ruined my mood.” He may also had said ( which i highly doubt) “c) i am not gonna do it ever” which i highly doubt he said it He didn’t say these statements with an oath just general sentences. He never used an oath with these sentences like ‘kasam or anything’ just simple sentences and i have read that an oath is necessary for ela. Is our nikkah valid? 2. Also if you think these statements are ila so what happens in the case of not remembering any duration in the past that how long after these sentences were uttered we had sex and vaguely remember whether these statements were uttered may b twice but not sure more than twice. In the case of high doubt on the number of times these sentences were said and don’t remember anything how long after these statements we had sex. All of this was said may two to three years ago roughly or more therefore we do not know whether we had sex within four months or not. What is the ruling in that case where one cannot remember whether they had sex within four months or after. ? My husband does Have infertility issues and low sex desire ( i think)we do sex sometimes or mostly after four months. I roughly remember from past when he wanted to do sex and if i used to refuse or there was some fight we used to do sex most likely within one week or so. But i cannot say for sure whether when the statements were said we did sex within four months or not. Lots of doubts on duration and sentences uttered ( may be twice or more may be two occasions )cause we do not remember anything and sentences were uttered long time ago.( few years ago roughly). I never knew about ila and my husband doesn’t even know what ila is and he is certain he never took an oath if anything said in the past and i m also certain he never took an oath ( like kasam or something) with the sentences mentioned above. Only general sentences were said without oath which are mentioned above in a, b, c and similar without any oath. Is our nikkah valid?

Answer

In the Name of Allah, the Most Gracious, the Most Merciful.

As-salāmu ‘alaykum wa-rahmatullāhi wa-barakātuh.

Īlā’ literally means to take an oath.[i]

Īlā’ is of two categories:

  1. Complete Īlā’ (Īlā’ Taam)
  2. Incomplete Īlā’ (Īlā’ Naqis)

A complete Īlā’ is if a husband takes an oath that he will not have intercourse with his wife for four months or more and fulfils his oath by not having intercourse with her in that duration, then one irrevocable divorce (Talaaq e Baa’in) will take place. If the husband does not take an oath, then īlā’ will not take place & divorce will not occur by having intercourse within that period[ii] [iii]

An incomplete Īlā’ is if the husband says that he will not have intercourse with his wife for lesser than four months for example one month, if he has sexual intercourse within one month, then he has breached the oath, and an atonement (kaffarah) is binding upon him. In this situation divorce will not take place.[iv] [v]

In the enquired situation, you state that your husband did not take any oath for not having sexual intercourse, then īlā’ did not take place. Your nikah is valid.

 

And Allah Ta’āla Knows Best

Mahmood Baig

Student Darul Iftaa

Jeddah, KSA

Checked and Approved by,
Mufti Ebrahim Desai.

 

 



[i]   بدائع الصنائع في ترتيب الشرائع (7/ 276) 

فَالْإِيلَاءُ فِي اللُّغَةِ عِبَارَةٌ عَنْ الْيَمِينِ يُقَالُ آلَى أَيْ : حَلَفَ ، وَلِهَذَا سُمِّيَتْ الْيَمِينُ أَلِيَّةً وَجَمْعُهَا أَلَايَا...

 

[ii]  ملتقى الأبحر (ص: 94)

(بَاب الْإِيلَاء)
هُوَ الْحلف على ترك وطىء الزَّوْجَة مدَّته وَهِي أَرْبَعَة أشهر للْحرَّة وشهران للْأمة فَلَا إِيلَاء لَو حلف على أقل مِنْهَا وَحكمه وُقُوع طَلْقَة باينة إِن بر وَلُزُوم الْكَفَّارَة أَو الْجَزَاء إِن حنث فَلَو قَالَ لزوجته: وَالله لَا أقْربك أَو وَالله لَا أقْربك أَرْبَعَة أشهر كَانَ موليا وَكَذَا لَو قَالَ: إِن قربتك فعلى حج أَو صَوْم أَو صَدَقَة أَو فَأَنت طَالِق أَو عَبده حر فَإِن قربهَا فِي الْمدَّة حنث وَسقط الْإِيلَاء وإلاّ بَانَتْ بمضيها وَسقط الْيَمين إِن حلف على أَرْبَعَة أشهر وَبقيت إِن أطلق....

 

 

البحر الرائق شرح كنز الدقائق (10/ 253)

(باب الإيلاء).

لما كان الإيلاء يوجب البينونة في ثاني الحال كالطلاق الرجعي أولاه به ، وهو لغة اليمين ، وشرعا قوله ( هو الحلف على ترك قربانها أربعة أشهر أو أكثر ) أي الزوجة وهو تعريف لأحد قسمي الإيلاء الحقيقي ، وهو ما اشتمل على القسم كقوله آليت أن لا أقربك أو حلفت أو ، والله أو ما يئول إليه كقوله أنا منك مول قاصدا به الإيجاب...

البحر الرائق شرح كنز الدقائق (10/ 254)

( قوله كقوله والله لا أقربك أربعة أشهر أو ، والله لا أقربك ) لقوله تعالى { للذين يؤلون من نسائهم تربص أربعة أشهر } وأفاد بالمثالين أنه لا فرق بين

 

 

مختصر القدوري : 369، كتاب الايلاء

 

 

[iii]  النتف في الفتاوى للسغدي (1/ 369)

الفاظ الايلاء

والفاظ الايلاء على وَجْهَيْن مفصح وَمَكني

فالمفصح أَرْبَعَة وَهُوَ ان يَقُول

وَالله لَا اجامعك اَوْ لَا اباضعك اَوْ لَا اقربك اَوْ لاغتسل مِنْك من الْجَنَابَة

والمكنى ان يَقُول

وَالله لَا أَتَيْتُك اَوْ لَا يجْتَمع رَأْسِي ورأسك على وسَادَة اَوْ لَا اضاجعك اَوْ لَا اناومك

فَأن قَالَ لم اعن فِيهَا الْجِمَاع صدق فِي قَوْلهم جَمِيعًا

قَالَ والايلاء كل يَمِين يمْنَع الرجل عَن مُبَاشرَة امْرَأَته اربعة أشهر فَصَاعِدا حَتَّى لَا يقدر ان يُجَامِعهَا الا ان يَحْنَث.

 

البناية شرح الهداية (5/ 538)

الرابع: أن كفارة الإيلاء إطعام عشرة مساكين، وفي الظهار إطعام ستين مسكينا، والصوم فيه شهران متتابعان. وفي الإيلاء ثلاثة أيام متتابعة.

 

 

 

[iv]  النتف في الفتاوى للسغدي (1/ 369)

فَأن قربهَا قبل مُضِيّ اربعة أشهر فقد حنث وَعَلِيهِ الْكَفَّارَة ان كَانَت يَمِينه بِاللَّه...

 

 

فتاوى دار العلوم زكريا: 4/220، ايلاء كا بيان.

 

 

[v]  بدائع الصنائع في ترتيب الشرائع (7/ 311)

( فَصْلٌ ) : وَأَمَّا شَرَائِطُ رُكْنِ الْإِيلَاءِ فَنَوْعَانِ : نَوْعٌ هُوَ شَرْطُ صِحَّتِهِ فِي حَقِّ حُكْمِ الْحِنْثِ ، وَنَوْعٌ هُوَ شَرْطُ صِحَّتِهِ فِي حَقِّ حُكْمِ الْبِرِّ ، وَهُوَ الطَّلَاقُ ؛ أَمَّا الْأَوَّلُ فَمَوْضِعُ بَيَانِهِ كِتَابُ الْأَيْمَانِ ؛ لِأَنَّ الْإِيلَاءَ يُسَاوِي سَائِرَ الْأَيْمَانِ فِي حَقِّ أَحَدِ الْحُكْمَيْنِ ، وَهُوَ حُكْمُ الْحِنْثِ ، وَإِنَّمَا يُخَالِفُهَا فِي حَقِّ الْحُكْمِ الْآخَرِ ، وَهُوَ حُكْمُ الْبِرِّ ؛ وَلِأَنَّهُ لَا حُكْمَ لِسَائِرِ الْأَيْمَانِ عِنْدَ تَحَقُّقِ الْبِرِّ فِيهَا وَلِلْإِيلَاءِ عِنْدَ تَحَقُّقِ الْبِرِّ حُكْمٌ ، وَهُوَ وُقُوعُ الطَّلَاقِ ؛ إذْ هُوَ تَعْلِيقُ الطَّلَاقِ الْبَائِنِ شَرْعًا بِشَرْطِ الْبِرِّ كَأَنَّهُ قَالَ : إذَا مَضَتْ أَرْبَعَةُ أَشْهُرٍ وَلَمْ أَقْرَبْكِ فِيهَا فَأَنْتِ طَالِقٌ بَائِنٌ ، فَنَذْكُرُ الشَّرَائِطَ الْمُخْتَصَّةَ بِهِ فِي حَقِّ هَذَا الْحُكْمِ ، وَهُوَ الطَّلَاقُ فَنَقُولُ : لِرُكْنِ الْإِيلَاءِ فِي حَقِّ هَذَا الْحُكْمِ شَرَائِطُ بَعْضُهَا يَعُمُّ كُلَّ يَمِينٍ بِالطَّلَاقِ ، وَبَعْضُهَا يَخُصُّ الْإِيلَاءَ .

 

البناية شرح الهداية (5/ 489)

[آلى من زوجته ووطئها في الأربعة أشهر]

م: (فإن وطئها في الأربعة الأشهر حنث في يمينه ولزمته الكفارة) ش: أي كفارة اليمين م: (لأن الكفارة موجب الحنث) ش: والإيلاء حلف، وقد حنث فيه فتلزمه الكفارة

 

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