Category: Charity, Obligatory (Zakaat)
Fatwa#: 40547
Asked Country: United States

Answered Date: Oct 18,2018

Title: Giving zakat to my father who is in debt

Question

Assalamoalaikum  my father has alot of debt and he can not pay them off . He took it for our family business which is now shut down. We are 2 sisters and one brother. My elder sister is unmarried and lives with parents in Pakistan. Brother is supporting his own family and my parents.

Can I help them with zakat and sadqa money to pay off their debts.

Answer

In the Name of Allah, the Most Gracious, the Most Merciful.

As-salāmu ‘alaykum wa-rahmatullāhi wa-barakātuh.

In principle, a person cannot give zakaat to any of his ascendants (e.g. father, grandfather etc) or descendants (e.g. son, grandson etc). [1] If your father does not have the nisaab amount after subtracting his debts from his surplus wealth, then it will be permissible for him to take zakaat and sadqah funds to pay off his debts. [2]

Accordingly, you cannot give your zakaat to your father. You may however collect zakaat and sadqah of other people to assist your father.

And Allah Ta’āla Knows Best

Aboobakr Siddeeq bin Mufti Amjad Mohammad

Student Darul Iftaa 

Azaadville, JHB, South Africa

Checked and Approved by,
Mufti Ebrahim Desai.



[1]  البحر الرائق شرح كنز الدقائق ـ مشكول - (6 / 71)

( قَوْلُهُ وَأَصْلِهِ ، وَإِنْ عَلَا وَفَرْعِهِ ، وَإِنْ سَفَلَ ) بِالْجَرِّ أَيْ لَا يَجُوزُ الدَّفْعُ إلَى أَبِيهِ وَجَدِّهِ ، وَإِنْ عَلَا ، وَلَا إلَى وَلَدِهِ وَوَلَدِ وَلَدِهِ ، وَإِنْ سَفَلَ ؛ لِأَنَّ الْمَنْفَعَةَ لَمْ تَنْقَطِعْ عَنْ الْمِلْكِ مِنْ كُلِّ وَجْهٍ كَمَا قَدَّمَهُ فِي تَعْرِيفِ الزَّكَاةِ ؛ لِأَنَّ الْوَاجِبَ عَلَيْهِ الْإِخْرَاجُ عَنْ مِلْكِهِ رَقَبَةً وَمَنْفَعَةً ، وَلَمْ يُوجَدْ فِي الْأُصُولِ وَالْفُرُوعِ الْإِخْرَاجُ عَنْ مِلْكِهِ مَنْفَعَةً وَإِنْ وَجَدَ رَقَبَةً

تبيين الحقائق شرح كنز الدقائق - (3 / 238)

وقوله : بشرط قطع المنفعة عن المملك من كل وجه احترز به من الدفع إلى فروعه ، وإن سفلوا ، وإلى أصوله ، وإن علوا

تحفة الملوك - (1 / 131)

ولا يدفعها المزكي إلى اصوله وفروعه وزوجته وزوجها

حاشية على مراقي الفلاح شرح نور الإيضاح - (1 / 473)

قوله ( وأصل المزكي وفرعه ) لأن الواجب عليه الإخراج عن ملكه رقبة ومنفعة ولم يوجد في الأصول والفروع والإخراج عن ملكه منفعة وإن وجد رقبة وهذا الحكم لا يخص الزكاة بل كل صدقة واجبة كالكفارات وصدقة الفطر والنذور لا يجوز دفعها إليهم

 

[2]  البحر الرائق شرح كنز الدقائق ـ مشكول - (6 / 62)

 وَفِي الْفَتَاوَى الظَّهِيرِيَّةِ : وَالدَّفْعُ إلَى مَنْ عَلَيْهِ الدَّيْنُ أَوْلَى مِنْ الدَّفْعِ إلَى الْفَقِيرِ

نور الإيضاح - (1 / 133)

والغارم هو المدين الذي عجز عن سداد دينه

رد المحتار - (7 / 207)

وَالْحَاصِلُ أَنَّ النِّصَابَ قِسْمَانِ : مُوجِبٌ لِلزَّكَاةِ وَهُوَ النَّامِي الْخَالِي عَنْ الدَّيْنِ .

وَغَيْرُ مُوجِبٍ لَهَا وَهُوَ غَيْرُهُ ، فَإِنْ كَانَ مُسْتَغْرِقًا بِالْحَاجَةِ لِمَالِكِهِ أَبَاحَ أَخْذَهُمَا وَإِلَّا حَرَّمَهُ

فتاویٰ قاسمیہ – (688 / 10)

اور اگر قرض کو مجری کرنے کے بعد چار ہزار روپیہ کا مالک نہیں رہتا ہے تو اسکو قرض ادا کرنے کے لئے مد زکاة میں سے دینا جائز ہوگا

 

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