Category: Basic Tenets of Faith
Fatwa#: 40112
Asked Country: Italy

Answered Date: Mar 04,2018

Title: Four things written regarding a baby

Question

Assalamualaikum.

I heard that 4 things are written about the baby when the woman conceives. What are they? I heard that takdir of jannat and jahannam is included, is this correct? How can that be? If the baby hasn’t done any action that his abode can be decided.

Answer

In the Name of Allah, the Most Gracious, the Most Merciful.

As-salāmu ‘alaykum wa-rahmatullāhi wa-barakātuh.

 

Hereunder is the referred hadith[i]

 

حدَّثنا الحَسَنُ بنُ الرَّبِيعِ قَالَ حدَّثنا أبُو الأحْوَصِ عنِ الأعْمَشِ عنْ زَيْدِ بنِ وهْبٍ قَالَ عَبْدُ الله حدَّثنا رسولُ الله صلى الله عَلَيْهِ وَسلم وهْوَ الصَّادِقُ المَصْدُوقُ قَالَ إنَّ أحَدَكُمْ يُجْمَعُ خَلْقُهُ فِي بَطْنِ أُمِّهِ أرْبَعِينَ يَوْمَاً ثُمَّ يَكُونُ عَلَقَةً مِثْلَ ذَلِكَ ثُمَّ يَكُونُ مُضْغَةً مِثْلَ ذَلِكَ ثُمَّ يَبْعَثُ الله مَلَكَاً فَيُؤْمَرُ بِأرْبَعِ كَلِمَاتٍ ويُقَالُ لَهُ اكْتُبْ عَمَلَهُ ورِزْقَهُ وأجَلَهُ وشَقِيٌّ أوْ سَعِيدٌ ثُمَّ يُنْفَخُ فِيهِ الرُّوحُ فإنَّ الرَّجُلَ مِنْكُمْ لَيَعْمَلُ حتَّى مَا يَكُونَ بَيْنَهُ وبَيْنَ الجَنَّةِ إلاَّ ذِرَاعٌ فَيَسْبِقُ عَلَيْهِ كِتابُهُ بِعَمَلِ أهْلِ النَّارِ ويَعْمَلُ حَتَّى مَا يَكُونَ بَيْنَهُ وبَيْنَ النَّارِ إلاَّ ذِرَاعٌ فَيَسْبِقُ عَلَيْهِ الْكِتَابُ فَيَعْمَلُ بِعَمَلِ أهْلِ الجَنَّةِ.

 

Translation: Allah’s Messenger (), the true and truly said, “(The matter of the creation of) a human being is put together in the womb of the mother in forty days, and then he becomes a clot of thick blood for a similar period, and then a piece of flesh for a similar period. Then Allah sends an angel who is ordered to write four things. He is ordered to write down his (i.e. the new creature’s) deeds, his livelihood, his (date of) death, and whether he will be blessed or wretched (in religion). Then the soul is breathed into him. So, a man amongst you may do (good deeds till there is only a cubit between him and Paradise and then what has been written for him decides his behavior and he starts doing (evil) deeds characteristic of the people of the (Hell) Fire. And similarly a man amongst you may do (evil) deeds till there is only a cubit between him and the (Hell) Fire, and then what has been written for him decides his behavior, and he starts doing deeds characteristic of the people of Paradise.” Sahih al-Bukhari 8023 

 

 

The four things decreed refers to the perfect and absolute knowledge of Allah. Allah knows ahead of time what one will do and how he will pass away. The issue of an individual’s will is deferred[ii]. The knowledge of Allah does not interfere with the free will of an individual. An individual commits good and bad through his free will. Allah knows about that ahead of time, not that Allah makes us do wrong or punishes an innocent child.

 

And Allah Ta’āla Knows Best

Muhammad Yaasir Yunus Hussen

Student Darul Iftaa
Mozambique 

Checked and Approved by,
Mufti Ebrahim Desai.

 



[i] عمدة القاري شرح صحيح البخاري (15/ 129)

[ii] شرح عقائد النسفية ص١٠٨–١١٥

 

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