Category: Charity, Obligatory (Zakaat)
Fatwa#: 40061
Asked Country: United States

Answered Date: Aug 14,2018

Title: Zakat Queries

Question

asalamualyakum

One person has $1,000 in savings for the year, but has a long-term debt of paying off a house mortgage ($5,000 per year). Would they qualify to receive zakaat?

Please explain which types of loans and debts will be used in zakat calcualation . in taleemul haqq 3 types are mentioned: qawee, mutawassit, dhaeef: what is the difference?

Answer

In the Name of Allah, the Most Gracious, the Most Merciful.

As-salāmu ‘alaykum wa-rahmatullāhi wa-barakātuh.

1.      A debt laden person will be eligible to receive zakat if he no longer possesses nisab after deducting his debts from the total value of his zakatable and nonessential property.

 

Regarding the person in reference, if his debt of $5000 and other debts exceeds the total value of his zakatable assets ($1000 in this case) and his nonessential property, he will be eligible to receive zakat.[i]

2.      Creditors may have to discharge zakat on money owed to them. The rulings of zakat differ based on what category the debt receivable falls under.

Imam Abu Hanifa RA has categorized debt receivables into strong, intermediate, and weak.

A strong debt is a debt from a loan or the sale of trading goods. The debt recipient will be responsible for paying zakah on the strong debt from the moment the debtor became liable. However, the obligation to pay matures upon possession of the value of one fifth of nisab.

An intermediary debt is a debt from the sale of non-merchandise such as the sale of one’s own house. The debt recipient will be responsible for paying zakah on the intermediary debt from the moment the debtor became liable. However, the obligation to pay matures upon possession of the value of the entire nisab.

A weak debt is a debt not gained through the exchange of wealth (māl) such as the marital gift and inheritance. The debt recipient will only be responsible for for zakat on weak debts upon acquisition (qabdh).[ii]  

And Allah Ta’āla Knows Best

Tahmid Chowdhury

Student Darul Iftaa

New York, USA

Checked and Approved by,

Mufti Ebrahim Desai.

 


[i]

الدر المختار وحاشية ابن عابدين (رد المحتار) (2/ 343)

(ومديون لا يملك نصابا فاضلا عن دينه)

 

الهداية شرح البداية (1/ 115)

قال رحمه الله صدقة الفطر واجبة على الحر المسلم إذا كان مالكا لمقدار النصاب فاضلا عن مسكنه وثيابه وأثاثه وفرسه وسلاحه وعبيده أما وجوبها فلقوله عليه الصلاة والسلام في خطبته أدوا عن كل حر وعبد صغير أو كبير نصف صاع من بر أو صاعا من تمر أو صاعا من شعير رواه ثعلبة بن صعير العدوي أو صعير العذري وبمثله يثبت الوجوب لعدم القطع وشرط الحرية ليتحقق التمليك والإسلام ليقع قربة واليسار لقوله عليه الصلاة والسلام لا صدقة إلا عن ظهر غنى وهو حجة على الشافعي رحمه الله في قوله تجب على من يملك زيادة عن قوت يومه لنفسه وعياله وقدر اليسار بالنصاب لتقدير الغني في الشرع به فاضلا عما ذكر من الأشياء لأنها مستحقة بالحاجة الأصلية والمستحق بالحاجة الأصلية كالمعدوم ولا يشترط فيه النمو ويتعلق بهذا النصاب حرمان الصدقة ووجوب الأضحية والفطرة

 

[ii]

الدر المختار شرح تنوير الأبصار وجامع البحار (ص: 132)

(و) اعلم أن الديون عند الامام ثلاثة: قوي، ومتوسط، وضعيف، ف (- تجب) زكاتها إذا تم نصابا

وحال الحول، لكن لا فورا بل (عند قبض أربعين درهما من الدين) القوي كقرض (وبدل مال تجارة) فكلما قبض أربعين درهما يلزمه درهم (و) عند قبض (مائتين منه لغيرها) أي من بدل مال لغير تجارة وهو المتوسط، كثمن سائمة وعبيد خدمة ونحوهما مما هو مشغول بحوائجه الاصلية كطعام وشراب وأملاك.

ويعتبر ما مضى من الحول قبل القبض

في الاصح، ومثله ما لو ورث دينا على رجل (و) عند قبض (مائتين مع حولان الحول بعده) أي بعد القبض (من) دين ضعيف وهو (بدل غير مال) كمهر ودية، وبدل كتابة وخلع،

إلا إذا كان عنده يضم إلى الدين الضعيف كما مر

 

 

 

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