Fatwa: # 38708
Category: Beliefs and Practices (Aq...
Country: Bangladesh
Date: 8th March 2019

Title

Isaal-e-Thawaab

Question

Recently my mother died and we, the family members, wish to do Isaal-e-Sawwab for my mother and father as well. We will appreciate if you kindly answer the below questions:

1. Which forms of Isaal-e-Sawwab are good/better/best ? 

2. Can it be done only after someone dies or rather it can be done in one's lifetime when he/she is alive?

3. What should be our intention in giving the rewards of Isaal-e-Sawwab ? to an individual ? to parents only ? or to all the muslims (dead & alive) till Qiyamat ? 

Jazāk Allāhu Khayran (جزاك اللهُ خيرًا)

 

Answer

In the Name of Allah, the Most Gracious, the Most Merciful.

As-salāmu ‘alaykum wa-rahmatullāhi wa-barakātuh.

May Allah Taa’la forgive your mother and grant her Jannatul- Firdous. Aameen.

Isaal-e-Thawaab is to perform a virtuous act and grant the reward to any person, alive or deceased. Isaal-e-Thawaab is (Mustahab) meritorious. [1]

One may include himself and as many people as possible in his reward of the virtues act without his reward been decreased. Each person will get the complete reward of the virtuous act.

It is stated in a Hadeeth:

أَنَّ سَعْدَ بْنَ عُبَادَةَ رَضِيَ اللَّهُ عَنْهُ تُوُفِّيَتْ أُمُّهُ وَهُوَ غَائِبٌ عَنْهَا، فَقَالَ: يَا رَسُولَ اللَّهِ إِنَّ أُمِّي تُوُفِّيَتْ وَأَنَا غَائِبٌ عَنْهَا، أَيَنْفَعُهَا شَيْءٌ إِنْ تَصَدَّقْتُ بِهِ عَنْهَا؟ قَالَ: «نَعَمْ»، قَالَ: فَإِنِّي أُشْهِدُكَ أَنَّ حَائِطِيَ المِخْرَافَ صَدَقَةٌ عَلَيْهَا

Translation: The mother of Sa`d bin 'Ubada died in his absence. He said, "O Allah's Messenger ()! My mother died in my absence; will it be of any benefit for her if I give Sadaqa on her behalf?" The Prophet () said, "Yes," Sa`d said, "I make you a witness that I gave my garden called Al Makhraf in charity on her behalf.

(Saheeh Bukhari,Kitaabul-Wasayaa,)

عَنْ أَبِي هُرَيْرَةَ، أَنَّ رَجُلاً، قَالَ لِلنَّبِيِّ صلى الله عليه وسلم إِنَّ أَبِي مَاتَ وَتَرَكَ مَالاً وَلَمْ يُوصِ فَهَلْ يُكَفِّرُ عَنْهُ أَنْ أَتَصَدَّقَ عَنْهُ قَالَ ‏ "‏ نَعَمْ ‏"‏ ‏

Translation: Abu Huraira (Allah be pleased with him) reported that a person said to Allah's Apostle (ﷺ):

My father died and left behind property without making any will regarding it. Would he be relieved of the burden of his sins if I give sadaqa on his behalf? He (the Holy Prophet) said: Yes.

(Saheeh Muslim, Kitaab-Al-Wasayaa)

عَنْ سَعْدِ بْنِ عُبَادَةَ، قَالَ قُلْتُ يَا رَسُولَ اللَّهِ إِنَّ أُمِّي مَاتَتْ أَفَأَتَصَدَّقُ عَنْهَا قَالَ ‏"‏ نَعَمْ ‏"‏‏.‏ قُلْتُ فَأَىُّ الصَّدَقَةِ أَفْضَلُ قَالَ ‏"‏ سَقْىُ الْمَاءِ ‏"‏‏.

It was narrated that Sa'd bin 'Ubadah said:

"I said: 'O Messenger of Allah, my mother has died; shall I give in charity on her behalf?' He said: 'Yes.' I said: 'What kind of charity is best?' He said: 'Providing drinking water.'"

(Sunan An-Nasa'i, Kitaab-Al-Wasayaa)

And Allah Ta’āla Knows Best

Muhammad I.V Patel

Student Darul Iftaa
Lusaka, Zambia

Checked and Approved by,
Mufti Ebrahim Desai.

_____


[1]تبيين الحقائق شرح كنز الدقائق وحاشية الشلبي (2/ 83)  

الْأَصْلُ فِي هَذَا الْبَابِ أَنَّ الْإِنْسَانَ لَهُ أَنْ يَجْعَلَ ثَوَابَ عَمَلِهِ لِغَيْرِهِ عِنْدَ أَهْلِ السُّنَّةِ وَالْجَمَاعَةِ صَلَاةً كَانَ أَوْ صَوْمًا أَوْ حَجًّا أَوْ صَدَقَةً أَوْ قِرَاءَةَ قُرْآنٍ أَوْ الْأَذْكَارَ إلَى غَيْرِ ذَلِكَ مِنْ جَمِيعِ أَنْوَاعِ الْبِرِّ، وَيَصِلُ ذَلِكَ إلَى الْمَيِّتِ وَيَنْفَعُهُ

 

البحر الرائق شرح كنز الدقائق ومنحة الخالق وتكملة الطوري (3/ 63)

فَإِنَّ مَنْ صَامَ أَوْ صَلَّى أَوْ تَصَدَّقَ وَجَعَلَ ثَوَابَهُ لِغَيْرِهِ مِنْ الْأَمْوَاتِ وَالْأَحْيَاءِ جَازَ وَيَصِلُ ثَوَابُهَا إلَيْهِمْ عِنْدَ أَهْلِ السُّنَّةِ وَالْجَمَاعَةِ كَذَا فِي الْبَدَائِعِ وَبِهَذَا عُلِمَ أَنَّهُ لَا فَرْقَ بَيْنَ أَنْ يَكُونَ الْمَجْعُولُ لَهُ مَيِّتًا أَوْ حَيًّا وَالظَّاهِرُ أَنَّهُ

لَا فَرْقَ بَيْنَ أَنْ يَنْوِيَ بِهِ عِنْدَ الْفِعْلِ لِلْغَيْرِ أَوْ يَفْعَلُهُ لِنَفْسِهِ ثُمَّ بَعْدَ ذَلِكَ يَجْعَلُ ثَوَابَهُ لِغَيْرِهِ لِإِطْلَاقِ كَلَامِهِ

الفتاوى الهندية -ط. دار الفكر (1/ 257)

 الْأَصْلُ في هذا الْبَابِ أَنَّ الْإِنْسَانَ له أَنْ يَجْعَلَ ثَوَابَ عَمَلِهِ لِغَيْرِهِ صَلَاةً كان أو صَوْمًا أو صَدَقَةً أو غَيْرَهَا كَالْحَجِّ وَقِرَاءَةِ الْقُرْآنِ وَالْأَذْكَارِ وَزِيَارَةِ قُبُورِ الْأَنْبِيَاءِ عليهم الصَّلَاةُ وَالسَّلَامُ وَالشُّهَدَاءِ وَالْأَوْلِيَاءِ وَالصَّالِحِينَ وَتَكْفِينِ الْمَوْتَى وَجَمِيعِ أَنْوَاعِ الْبِرِّ كَذَا في غَايَةِ السُّرُوجِيِّ شَرْحِ الْهِدَايَةِ

 

رد المحتار (6/ 404)

مَطْلَبٌ فِي الْقِرَاءَةِ لِلْمَيِّتِ وَإِهْدَاءُ ثَوَابِهَا لَهُ [ تَنْبِيهٌ ] صَرَّحَ عُلَمَاؤُنَا فِي بَابِ الْحَجِّ عَنْ الْغَيْرِ بِأَنَّ لِلْإِنْسَانِ أَنْ يَجْعَلَ ثَوَابَ عَمَلِهِ لِغَيْرِهِ صَلَاةً أَوْ صَوْمًا أَوْ صَدَقَةً أَوْ غَيْرَهَا كَذَا فِي الْهِدَايَةِ ، بَلْ فِي زَكَاةِ التَّتَارْخَانِيَّة عَنْ الْمُحِيطِ : الْأَفْضَلُ لِمَنْ يَتَصَدَّقُ نَفْلًا أَنْ يَنْوِيَ لِجَمِيعِ الْمُؤْمِنِينَ وَالْمُؤْمِنَاتِ لِأَنَّهَا تَصِلُ إلَيْهِمْ وَلَا يَنْقُصُ مِنْ أَجْرِهِ شَيْءٌ ا هـ هُوَ مَذْهَبُ أَهْلِ السُّنَّةِ وَالْجَمَاعَةِ

الهداية في شرح بداية المبتدي (1/ 178)

الأصل في هذا الباب أن الإنسان له أن يجعل ثواب عمله لغيره صلاة أو صوما أو صدقة أو غيرها عند أهل السنة والجماعة لما روي عن النبي عليه الصلاة والسلام أنه ضحى بكبشين أملحين أحدهما عن نفسه والآخر عن أمته ممن أقر بوحدانية الله تعالى وشهد له بالبلاغ جعل تضحية إحدى الشاتين لأمته

فتاؤي محمؤديه   جلد13   ص338

احسن الفتاؤي   جلد4   ص  215

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