Category: Jurisprudence and Rulings (Fiqh)
Fatwa#: 38199
Asked Country: Russian Federation

Answered Date: Feb 22,2018

Title: Wealth distribution in one’s life

Question

Assalam o Allakium,

wealth Distribution in one's life.

My father is alive, Al Hamdulillah and He just recovered from Cancer, He wants to distribute his all wealth equally between following in his life.

 

1. 2 Sons

2. 2 Daughters

3. Wife

 

The intentions of my father are:-

 

1. In case of my father's death as per Islamic law my sisters and mother will get less share.

 

2.   My mother is 72 years old and sick for the last 10 years with heart and lung disease and on bed. She decided to exclude one son from her wealth and wants to give the wealth she will get from my father side and her own wealth to One Son and two daughters excluding father and one Son.

3. The wealth my brother and 2 sisters will get from my Mother Side will be used by my brother to build a house and to forgo his share in the house which my two sisters get from my father's wealth (Technically my both sisters will be buying a share of my brother from the money they will get from father and mother).

 Is this fair with other son as per Islamic law and is this fair that my father distribute his wealth knowingly that this will seriously hurt his son feeling and financial interests.

 

My sisters and brother are also financially good,

 

Need your Guidance as per Islam.

 

Jazak Allah .  

 

Faisal

Answer

In the Name of Allaah, the Most Gracious, the Most Merciful.

As-salāmu ‘alaykum wa-rahmatullāhi wa-barakātuh.

Brother in Islaam,

Rasulullaah (Sallallaahu ‘alaihi wasallam) has advised the parents to maintain equality amongst their children. Consider the following Hadith:

عن النُّعْمَانُ بْنُ بَشِيرٍ، أَنَّ أُمَّهُ بِنْتَ رَوَاحَةَ، سَأَلَتْ أَبَاهُ بَعْضَ الْمَوْهِبَةِ مِنْ مَالِهِ لاِبْنِهَا فَالْتَوَى بِهَا سَنَةً ثُمَّ بَدَا لَهُ فَقَالَتْ لاَ أَرْضَى حَتَّى تُشْهِدَ رَسُولَ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم عَلَى مَا وَهَبْتَ لاِبْنِي ‏.‏ فَأَخَذَ أَبِي بِيَدِي وَأَنَا يَوْمَئِذٍ غُلاَمٌ فَأَتَى رَسُولَ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم فَقَالَ يَا رَسُولَ اللَّهِ إِنَّ أُمَّ هَذَا بِنْتَ رَوَاحَةَ أَعْجَبَهَا أَنْ أُشْهِدَكَ عَلَى الَّذِي وَهَبْتُ لاِبْنِهَا ‏.‏ فَقَالَ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم ‏"‏ يَا بَشِيرُ أَلَكَ وَلَدٌ سِوَى هَذَا ‏"‏ ‏.‏ قَالَ نَعَمْ ‏.‏ فَقَالَ ‏"‏ أَكُلَّهُمْ وَهَبْتَ لَهُ مِثْلَ هَذَا ‏"‏ ‏.‏ قَالَ لاَ ‏.‏ قَالَ ‏"‏ فَلاَ تُشْهِدْنِي إِذًا فَإِنِّي لاَ أَشْهَدُ عَلَى جَوْرٍ ‏"‏[i] ‏.‏ 

Translation: Sayyiduna Nu'maan bin Basheer (Radiyallaahu ‘anhuma) reported that his mother Bint Rawaahah (Radiyallaahu ‘anha) asked his (Nu'maan's) father about bestowing some gifts from his property to his son. He delayed the matter by one year, and then set forth to do that. She (Nu'maan's mother) said, “I shall not be pleased unless you call Rasulullaah (Sallallaahu ‘alaihi wasallam) as witness to what you confer as a gift on your son.” (Nu'maan said): So my father took hold of my hand- I was at that time a boy- and came to Rasulullaah (Sallallaahu ‘alaihi wasallam) and said, “O Rasulullaah, his mother, the daughter of Rawaahah wishes that I call you to witness to what I confer as gift to her son.” Rasulullaah (Sallallaahu ‘alaihi wasallam) said, “O Basheer, do you have any other son besides this (son of yours)?” He replied in the affirmative. He (Rasulullaah) said, “Have you given gifts to all of them like this?” He replied, “No.” Thereupon Rasulullaah (Sallallaahu ‘alaihi wasallam) said, “Then do not call me as a witness, for I cannot be witness to an injustice. (Muslim 1623)

It is a right of every child to be treated equally. If a child is treated unequally, it leads to animosity and disunity in the family. It is the responsibility of the parents to ensure and maintain love, harmony and unity in the family. The parents should not do anything that will breathe ill-feelings and hatred in the family. Giving preference to one child over the other without justifiable reasons is prohibited in Shari’ah[ii].

In the enquired situation, your father may gift his wealth to the children in equally. However, his intention should not be to merely engineer a mechanism to overcome the different allocated shares of inheritance and thereby increase the wife and daughter’s shares.

As for your mother’s intention of gifting her wealth to all the siblings except one, if this is done to deprive the son in reference of her inheritance and to manipulate the laws of Shari’ah, then it will be impermissible for her to divide her wealth in such a manner. Dividing her wealth in such manner is detrimental to her Aakhirah. Accordingly, if this is her intent, then it is not permissible for the father to gift his wealth to his wife as he will be a cause of injustice to one son in doing so.

 

And Allaah Ta’aala Knows Best

Muajul I. Chowdhury

 

Student, Darul Iftaa

Astoria, New York, USA

 

Checked and Approved by,
Mufti Ebrahim Desai.

 



[i]  صحيح مسلم (حديث 1623)

حَدَّثَنَا مُحَمَّدُ بْنُ بِشْرٍ، حَدَّثَنَا أَبُو حَيَّانَ التَّيْمِيُّ، عَنِ الشَّعْبِيِّ، حَدَّثَنِي النُّعْمَانُ بْنُ بَشِيرٍ، أَنَّ أُمَّهُ بِنْتَ رَوَاحَةَ، سَأَلَتْ أَبَاهُ بَعْضَ الْمَوْهِبَةِ مِنْ مَالِهِ لاِبْنِهَا فَالْتَوَى بِهَا سَنَةً ثُمَّ بَدَا لَهُ فَقَالَتْ لاَ أَرْضَى حَتَّى تُشْهِدَ رَسُولَ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم عَلَى مَا وَهَبْتَ لاِبْنِي ‏.‏ فَأَخَذَ أَبِي بِيَدِي وَأَنَا يَوْمَئِذٍ غُلاَمٌ فَأَتَى رَسُولَ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم فَقَالَ يَا رَسُولَ اللَّهِ إِنَّ أُمَّ هَذَا بِنْتَ رَوَاحَةَ أَعْجَبَهَا أَنْ أُشْهِدَكَ عَلَى الَّذِي وَهَبْتُ لاِبْنِهَا ‏.‏ فَقَالَ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم ‏"‏ يَا بَشِيرُ أَلَكَ وَلَدٌ سِوَى هَذَا ‏"‏ ‏.‏ قَالَ نَعَمْ ‏.‏ فَقَالَ ‏"‏ أَكُلَّهُمْ وَهَبْتَ لَهُ مِثْلَ هَذَا ‏"‏ ‏.‏ قَالَ لاَ ‏.‏ قَالَ ‏"‏ فَلاَ تُشْهِدْنِي إِذًا فَإِنِّي لاَ أَشْهَدُ عَلَى جَوْرٍ

 

[ii]  حاشية ابن عابدين (6/ 127)

 (وأما) كيفية العدل بينهم فقد قال أبو يوسف العدل في ذلك أن يسوي بينهم في العطية ولا يفضل الذكر على الأنثى وقال محمد العدل بينهم أن يعطيهم على سبيل الترتيب في المواريث للذكر مثل حظ الأنثيين كذا ذكر القاضي الاختلاف بينهما في شرح مختصر الطحاوي وذكر محمد في الموطإ ينبغي للرجل أن يسوي بين ولده في النحل ولا يفضل بعضهم على بعض. وظاهر هذا يقتضي أن يكون قوله مع قول أبي يوسف وهو الصحيح لما روي أن بشيرا أبا النعمان أتى بالنعمان إلى رسول الله - صلى الله عليه وسلم - فقال إني نحلت ابني هذا غلاما كان لي فقال له رسول الله - صلى الله عليه وسلم - كل ولدك نحلته مثل هذا فقال لا فقال النبي - عليه الصلاة والسلام - فأرجعه وهذا إشارة إلى العدل بين الأولاد في النحلة وهو التسوية بينهم ولأن في التسوية تأليف القلوب والتفضيل يورث الوحشة بينهم فكانت التسوية 

 

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