Category: Beliefs and Practices (Aqeedah)
Fatwa#: 37701
Asked Country: Mauritius

Answered Date: Feb 22,2017

Title: When non Muslims die, do they go through "azaab-e-qabr"? Where is their "rooh" kept?

Question

Assalamoualaikoum,

 

When non muslims die, do they go through "azaab-e-qabr"?

Where is their "rooh" kept?

Will they be assembled together with muslims on the day of judgement?

Thank you

Answer

In the Name of Allah, the Most Gracious, the Most Merciful.

As-salāmu ‘alaykum wa-rahmatullāhi wa-barakātuh.

  1. The Azaab-e-Qabr (punishment in the grave) is a reality and as Muslims, we believe in this. The torment in the grave will vary according to the sins committed by the person in this world, whether he was a disbeliever or a disobedient Muslim. Consider the following Hadith

عَنِ الْبَرَاءِ بْنِ عَازِبٍ، قَالَ: خَرَجْنَا مَعَ رَسُولِ اللَّهِ صَلَّى اللهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ فِي جَنَازَةِ رَجُلٍ مِنَ الْأَنْصَارِ، فَانْتَهَيْنَا إِلَى الْقَبْرِ وَلَمَّا يُلْحَدْ، فَجَلَسَ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ صَلَّى اللهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ وَجَلَسْنَا حَوْلَهُ كَأَنَّمَا عَلَى رُءُوسِنَا الطَّيْرُ، وَفِي يَدِهِ عُودٌ يَنْكُتُ بِهِ فِي الْأَرْضِ، فَرَفَعَ رَأْسَهُ، فَقَالَ: «اسْتَعِيذُوا بِاللَّهِ مِنْ عَذَابِ الْقَبْرِ» مَرَّتَيْنِ، أَوْ ثَلَاثًا، زَادَ فِي حَدِيثِ جَرِيرٍ «هَاهُنَا» وَقَالَ: " وَإِنَّهُ لَيَسْمَعُ خَفْقَ نِعَالِهِمْ إِذَا وَلَّوْا مُدْبِرِينَ حِينَ يُقَالُ لَهُ: يَا هَذَا، مَنْ رَبُّكَ وَمَا دِينُكَ وَمَنْ نَبِيُّكَ؟ " قَالَ هَنَّادٌ: قَالَ: " وَيَأْتِيهِ مَلَكَانِ فَيُجْلِسَانِهِ فَيَقُولَانِ لَهُ: مَنْ رَبُّكَ؟ فَيَقُولُ: رَبِّيَ اللَّهُ، فَيَقُولَانِ لَهُ: مَا دِينُكَ؟ فَيَقُولُ: دِينِيَ الْإِسْلَامُ، فَيَقُولَانِ لَهُ: مَا هَذَا الرَّجُلُ الَّذِي بُعِثَ فِيكُمْ؟ " قَالَ: " فَيَقُولُ: هُوَ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ صَلَّى اللهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ [ص:240]، فَيَقُولَانِ: وَمَا يُدْرِيكَ؟ فَيَقُولُ: قَرَأْتُ كِتَابَ اللَّهِ فَآمَنْتُ بِهِ وَصَدَّقْتُ «زَادَ فِي حَدِيثِ جَرِيرٍ» فَذَلِكَ قَوْلُ اللَّهِ عَزَّ وَجَلَّ {يُثَبِّتُ اللَّهُ الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا} [إبراهيم: 27] " الْآيَةُ - ثُمَّ اتَّفَقَا - قَالَ: " فَيُنَادِي مُنَادٍ مِنَ السَّمَاءِ: أَنْ قَدْ صَدَقَ عَبْدِي، فَأَفْرِشُوهُ مِنَ الْجَنَّةِ، وَافْتَحُوا لَهُ بَابًا إِلَى الْجَنَّةِ، وَأَلْبِسُوهُ مِنَ الْجَنَّةِ " قَالَ: «فَيَأْتِيهِ مِنْ رَوْحِهَا وَطِيبِهَا» قَالَ: «وَيُفْتَحُ لَهُ فِيهَا مَدَّ بَصَرِهِ» قَالَ: «وَإِنَّ الْكَافِرَ» فَذَكَرَ مَوْتَهُ قَالَ: " وَتُعَادُ رُوحُهُ فِي جَسَدِهِ، وَيَأْتِيهِ مَلَكَانِ فَيُجْلِسَانِهِ فَيَقُولَانِ: لَهُ مَنْ رَبُّكَ؟ فَيَقُولُ: هَاهْ هَاهْ هَاهْ، لَا أَدْرِي، فَيَقُولَانِ لَهُ: مَا دِينُكَ؟ فَيَقُولُ: هَاهْ هَاهْ، لَا أَدْرِي، فَيَقُولَانِ: مَا هَذَا الرَّجُلُ الَّذِي بُعِثَ فِيكُمْ؟ فَيَقُولُ: هَاهْ هَاهْ، لَا أَدْرِي، فَيُنَادِي مُنَادٍ مِنَ السَّمَاءِ: أَنْ كَذَبَ، فَأَفْرِشُوهُ مِنَ النَّارِ، وَأَلْبِسُوهُ مِنَ النَّارِ، وَافْتَحُوا لَهُ بَابًا إِلَى النَّارِ " قَالَ: «فَيَأْتِيهِ مِنْ حَرِّهَا وَسَمُومِهَا» قَالَ: «وَيُضَيَّقُ عَلَيْهِ قَبْرُهُ حَتَّى تَخْتَلِفَ فِيهِ أَضْلَاعُهُ» زَادَ فِي حَدِيثِ جَرِيرٍ قَالَ: «ثُمَّ يُقَيَّضُ لَهُ أَعْمَى أَبْكَمُ مَعَهُ مِرْزَبَّةٌ مِنْ حَدِيدٍ لَوْ ضُرِبَ بِهَا جَبَلٌ لَصَارَ تُرَابًا» قَالَ: «فَيَضْرِبُهُ بِهَا ضَرْبَةً يَسْمَعُهَا مَا بَيْنَ الْمَشْرِقِ وَالْمَغْرِبِ إِلَّا الثَّقَلَيْنِ فَيَصِيرُ تُرَابًا» قَالَ: «ثُمَّ تُعَادُ فِيهِ الرُّوحُ» 

Translation: Sayyiduna Al-Bara ibn ‘Azib (radiyallahu ‘anhu) narrates: “We went out with Rasulullah (sallallahu ‘alayhi wa sallam) accompanying the bier of a man of the Ansar. When we reached his grave, it was not yet dug. So Nabi (sallallahu ‘alayhi wa sallam) sat down and we also sat down around him as if birds were over our heads. He had a stick in his hand with which he was scratching the ground. He then raised his head and said: Seek refuge with Allah from the punishment in the grave. He said it twice or thrice, for verily he hears their footsteps when they go back, and at that moment he is asked: O so and so! Who is your Rabb, what is your religion, and who is your Nabi? Two angels will come to him, make him sit up and ask him: Who is your Rabb? He will reply: My Rabb is Allah. They will ask him: What is your religion? He will reply: My religion is Islam. They will ask him: What is your opinion about the man who was sent on a mission among you? He will reply: He is the Messenger of Allah. They will ask: How are you aware of this? He will reply: I recited the Quran, Allah Ta’ala’s book, believed in it, and considered it true. Nabi (sallallahu ‘alayhi wa sallam) then said this is what is meant by the following verse of the Holy Quran: “Allah holds steadfast those who believe with the word that stands firm in this world and the next. Then a caller will call from the sky: My servant has spoken the truth, so spread a bed for him from Jannah, open a door for him into Jannah, and clothe him from Jannah. So some of its breeze and perfume will come to him, and his grave will expand for him as far as the eye can see.

He also mentioned the death of the disbeliever, saying: His spirit will be restored to his body, two angels will come to him, make him sit up and ask him: Who is your Rabb? He will reply: Alas, alas! I do not know. They will ask him: What is your religion? He will reply: Alas, alas! I do not know. They will ask: Who was the man who was sent on a mission among you? He will reply: Alas, alas! I do not know. Then a caller will call from the sky: He has lied, so spread a bed for him from Hell, clothe him from Hell, and open for him a door into Hell. Then some of its heat and hot wind will come to him, and his grave will be compressed, so that his ribs will be crushed together. Then a blind and dumb person will be placed in charge of him, with such a sledge-hammer that if a mountain were to be struck with it, it would become dust. He will give him a blow with it which will be heard by everything between the east and the west except by man and jinn, and he will become dust. Then his soul will be restored to him.”

(Sunan Abi Dawud, Hadith # 4720)

  1. The rooh (soul) of the disbelievers shall be kept in a place called Sijjeen.[1]
  2. On the day of judgement Allah T’ala will gather all of the creation[2]

Consider the following hadith

 عَنْ أَبِي هُرَيْرَةَ ـ رضى الله عنه ـ قَالَ أُتِيَ النَّبِيُّ صلى الله عليه وسلم يَوْمًا بِلَحْمٍ فَقَالَ ‏ "‏ إِنَّ اللَّهَ يَجْمَعُ يَوْمَ الْقِيَامَةِ الأَوَّلِينَ وَالآخِرِينَ فِي صَعِيدٍ وَاحِدٍ، فَيُسْمِعُهُمُ الدَّاعِي، وَيُنْفِدُهُمُ الْبَصَرُ

Abu Huraira narrated: One day some meat was given to the Prophet () and he said, "On the Day of Resurrection Allah will gather all the first and the last (people) in one plain, and the voice of the announcer will reach all of them, and one will be able to see them all. (Sahih al-Bukhari 3361)

In view of this narration, it is understood that the Muslims and non-muslims will be together initially on the day of judgement. However, later the command shall be given

امْتَازُوا الْيَوْمَ أَيُّهَا الْمُجْرِمُونَ

[Then He will say], "But stand apart today, you criminals. (Surah Yasin Ayat 59)

 

 

And Allah Ta’āla Knows Best

Syed Haneef

Student Darul Iftaa
New York, USA

Checked and Approved by,
Mufti Ebrahim Desai.



[1] صحيح مسلم (4/ 2202)

وَإِنَّ الْكَافِرَ إِذَا خَرَجَتْ رُوحُهُ - قَالَ حَمَّادٌ وَذَكَرَ مِنْ نَتْنِهَا، وَذَكَرَ لَعْنًا - وَيَقُولُ أَهْلُ السَّمَاءِ رُوحٌ: خَبِيثَةٌ جَاءَتْ مِنْ قِبَلِ الْأَرْضِ. قَالَ فَيُقَالُ: انْطَلِقُوا بِهِ إِلَى آخِرِ الْأَجَلِ

[  ش (انطلقوا به إلى آخر الأجل) أي إلى سدرة المنتهى (انطلقوا به إلى آخر الأجل) إلى سجين (ريطة) الريطة ثوب رقيق وقيل هي الملاءة وكان سبب ردها على الأنف بسبب ما ذكر من نتن ريح روح الكافر]

غاية الأماني في الرد على النبهاني (1/ 585)

فأرواح أهل السعادة باقية منعمة إلى يوم القيامة، وأرواح أهل الشقاء في سجين معذبة إلى يوم القيامة

توضيح المقاصد شرح الكافية الشافية نونية ابن القيم (1/ 101)

عَن ابي هُرَيْرَة أَن أَرْوَاح الابرار فِي عليين وأرواح الْفجار فِي سِجِّين

لوامع الأنوار البهية (2/ 53)

وَحَاصِلُ هَذَا أَنَّ أَرْوَاحَ الْمُؤْمِنِينَ فِي عِلِّيِّينَ بِحَسَبِ مَنَازِلِهِمْ وَأَرْوَاحَ الْكُفَّارِ فِي سِجِّينٍ بِحَسَبِ مَنَازِلِهِمْ وَمَا تَؤُولُ إِلَيْهِ.

تفسير القرآن العظيم - جزء عم (ص: 59)

{سِجِّينٍ} أي: في سجل أهل النار، أو في حبس وضيق

تفسير الطبري = جامع البيان ت شاكر (24/ 283)

حدثني عمر بن إسماعيل بن مجالد، قال: ثنا مطرِّف بن مازن قاضي اليمن، عن معمر، عن قتادة قال: (سِجِّينٍ) الأرض السابعة.

حُدثت عن الحسين، قال: سمعت أبا معاذ يقول: ثنا عبيد، قال: سمعت الضحاك يقول في قوله: (لَفِي سِجِّينٍ) يقول: في الأرض السفلى.

حدثنا ابن بشار، قال: ثنا سليمان، قال: ثنا أبو هلال، قال: ثنا قتادة، في قوله: (إِنَّ كِتَابَ الْفُجَّارِ لَفِي سِجِّينٍ) قال: الأرض السابعة السفلي

 

[2] تفسير حدائق الروح والريحان في روابي علوم القرآن (19/ 28)

{ثُمَّ إِنَّكُمْ يَوْمَ الْقِيَامَةِ}؛ أي: عند النفخة الثانية، {تُبْعَثُونَ}؛ أي: تخرجون من قبوركم للحساب، ثم المجازاة بالثواب، والعقاب، إذ يوفى كل عامل جراء عمله، إن خيرًا فخير، وإن شرًا فشرّ.

صحيح البخاري (4/ 139)

 عَنِ ابْنِ عَبَّاسٍ رَضِيَ اللَّهُ عَنْهُمَا، عَنِ النَّبِيِّ صَلَّى اللهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ، قَالَ: " إِنَّكُمْ مَحْشُورُونَ حُفَاةً عُرَاةً غُرْلًا، ثُمَّ قَرَأَ: {كَمَا بَدَأْنَا أَوَّلَ خَلْقٍ نُعِيدُهُ وَعْدًا عَلَيْنَا إِنَّا كُنَّا فَاعِلِينَ} [الأنبياء: 104]

المسند الموضوعي الجامع للكتب العشرة (2/ 380)

يَجْمَعُ اللَّهُ الأَوَّلِينَ وَالآخِرِينَ فِي صَعِيدٍ وَاحِدٍ، فَيُبْصِرُهُمُ النَّاظِرُ وَيُسْمِعُهُمُ الدَّاعِي، وَتَدْنُو مِنْهُمُ الشَّمْسُ،

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