Category: Marriage (Nikah)
Fatwa#: 37370
Asked Country: India

Answered Date: Mar 28,2017

Title: Should a woman cover her face?

Question

Marriage is in critical situation now, just because of misunderstandings of Islamic low.

 

My Marriage is in very critical situation now. I don't want to leave my wife. Please give me some reference of Quran and Hadith for my below queries to tell her about her misunderstanding.

1. Can a husband force her wife to ware burqa and niqab to cover her satar as per Islamic low?

2. My wife is saying that only "Chadar, shawl, audhni/duppta" words are mention in Quran and hadith, so she will not ware burqa and niqab, is this valid? I said her, There are many things/words are not mention in Quran and hadith like (Mobile Phone, Train, T.V, Computer etc.) we should stop using these things?

Answer

In the Name of Allah, the Most Gracious, the Most Merciful.

As-salāmu ‘alaykum wa-rahmatullāhi wa-barakātuh.

The burqa and niqaab is understood from the following verse:

يَـٰٓأَيُّہَا ٱلنَّبِىُّ قُل لِّأَزۡوَٲجِكَ وَبَنَاتِكَ وَنِسَآءِ ٱلۡمُؤۡمِنِينَ يُدۡنِينَ عَلَيۡہِنَّ مِن جَلَـٰبِيبِهِنَّۚ ذَٲلِكَ أَدۡنَىٰٓ أَن يُعۡرَفۡنَ فَلَا يُؤۡذَيۡنَۗ

Translation:

 “Oh Prophet! Tell your wives, your daughters and the women of the believers to draw their cloaks [veils] all over their bodies [i.e. screen themselves completely except the eyes or one eye to see the way]. That will be better, that they should be known [as free respectable women] so as not to be annoyed.” [Surah Ahzab/Verse 59]

Imaam Ibn-Kathir [Rahimahullah], writes under the commentary of the above verse in his Tafseer Ibn-Kathir:[1]

وَقَالَ مُحَمَّدِ بْنِ سِيرِينَ سَأَلْتُ عَبِيدَةَ السَّلْمَانِيَّ عَنْ قول الله عز وجل: يُدْنِينَ عَلَيْهِنَّ مِنْ جَلَابِيبِهِنَّ فَغَطَّى وَجْهَهُ وَرَأْسَهُ وَأَبْرَزَ عَيْنَهُ الْيُسْرَى

Translation:

Hadhrat Muhammad bin Sirin (Rahimahullah) said: "I asked `Hadhrat Ubaydah As-Salmani about the Ayah :( to draw their Jalabib over their bodies.) He covered his face and head, with just his left eye showing.

You should deal with your wife with wisdom and diplomacy to make her understand the importance of burqa and niqaab is deduced from Quraan. If you adopt wisdom and diplomacy, you will achieve your objective and save turbulence in your marriage.

For more Quranic verses refer footnote.[2]

You may refer to this link as well for more details:   https://www.deoband.org/2009/04/contemporary-voices/the-niqab-and-its-obligation-in-the-hanafi-madhhab/

And Allah Ta’āla Knows Best

Ridwaan Ibn Khalid Esmail [Kasak]

Student Darul Iftaa
Katete, Zambia 

Checked and Approved by,
Mufti Ebrahim Desai

 

 

 

 



[1] تفسير ابن كثير ط العلمية (6/ 425)

 

 

يَقُولُ تَعَالَى آمِرًا رَسُولَهُ صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ تَسْلِيمًا أَنْ يَأْمُرَ النِّسَاءَ الْمُؤْمِنَاتِ- خَاصَّةً أَزْوَاجَهُ وَبَنَاتِهِ لِشَرَفِهِنَّ- بِأَنْ يُدْنِينَ عَلَيْهِنَّ مِنْ جَلَابِيبِهِنَّ لِيَتَمَيَّزْنَ عَنْ سِمَاتِ نِسَاءِ الْجَاهِلِيَّةِ وَسِمَاتِ الْإِمَاءِ، وَالْجِلْبَابُ هُوَ الرِّدَاءُ فَوْقَ الْخِمَارِ، قَالَهُ ابْنُ مَسْعُودٍ وَعُبَيْدَةُ وَقَتَادَةُ وَالْحَسَنُ الْبَصْرِيُّ وَسَعِيدُ بْنُ جُبَيْرٍ وَإِبْرَاهِيمُ النَّخَعِيُّ وَعَطَاءٌ الْخُرَاسَانِيُّ وَغَيْرُ وَاحِدٍ وَهُوَ بِمَنْزِلَةِ الْإِزَارِ اليوم. قال الْجَوْهَرِيُّ:

الْجِلْبَابُ الْمِلْحَفَةُ، قَالَتِ امْرَأَةٌ مِنْ هُذَيْلٍ ترثي قتيلا لها [البسيط] :

تَمْشِي النُّسُورُ إِلَيْهِ وَهْيَ لَاهِيَةٌ ... مَشْيَ الْعَذَارَى عَلَيْهِنَّ الْجَلَابِيبُ «1»

قَالَ عَلِيُّ بْنُ أَبِي طَلْحَةَ عَنِ ابْنِ عَبَّاسٍ أَمَرَ اللَّهُ نِسَاءَ الْمُؤْمِنِينَ إِذَا خَرَجْنَ مِنْ بُيُوتِهِنَّ فِي حَاجَةٍ أَنْ يُغَطِّينَ وُجُوهَهُنَّ مِنْ فَوْقِ رُؤُوسِهِنَّ بِالْجَلَابِيبِ وَيُبْدِينَ عَيْنًا وَاحِدَةً «2» ، وَقَالَ مُحَمَّدِ بْنِ سِيرِينَ سَأَلْتُ عَبِيدَةَ السَّلْمَانِيَّ عَنْ قول الله عز وجل: يُدْنِينَ عَلَيْهِنَّ مِنْ جَلَابِيبِهِنَّ فَغَطَّى وَجْهَهُ وَرَأْسَهُ وَأَبْرَزَ عَيْنَهُ الْيُسْرَى وَقَالَ عِكْرِمَةُ تُغَطِّي ثُغْرَةَ نَحْرِهَا بِجِلْبَابِهَا تُدْنِيهِ عَلَيْهَا. وَقَالَ ابْنُ أَبِي حَاتِمٍ حَدَّثَنَا أَبُو عَبْدِ اللَّهِ الطهراني فِيمَا كَتَبَ إِلَيَّ حَدَّثَنَا عَبْدُ الرَّزَّاقِ أَخْبَرَنَا مَعْمَرٌ عَنِ ابْنِ خيثم عَنْ صَفِيَّةَ بِنْتِ شَيْبَةَ عَنْ أُمِّ سَلَمَةَ قَالَتْ لَمَّا نَزَلَتْ هَذِهِ الْآيَةُ يُدْنِينَ عَلَيْهِنَّ مِنْ جَلَابِيبِهِنَّ خَرَجَ نِسَاءُ الْأَنْصَارِ كَأَنَّ عَلَى رؤوسهن القربان مِنَ السَّكِينَةِ وَعَلَيْهِنَّ أَكْسِيَةٌ سُودٌ يَلْبَسْنَهَا

[2] يَـٰٓأَيُّہَا ٱلنَّبِىُّ قُل لِّأَزۡوَٲجِكَ وَبَنَاتِكَ وَنِسَآءِ ٱلۡمُؤۡمِنِينَ يُدۡنِينَ عَلَيۡہِنَّ مِن جَلَـٰبِيبِهِنَّۚ ذَٲلِكَ أَدۡنَىٰٓ أَن يُعۡرَفۡنَ فَلَا يُؤۡذَيۡنَۗ

Translation:

 “Oh Prophet! Tell your wives, your daughters and the women of the believers to draw their cloaks [veils] all over their bodies [i.e. screen themselves completely except the eyes or one eye to see the way].  That will be better, that they should be known [as free respectable women] so as not to be annoyed.” [Surah Ahzab/Verse 59]

 

 (Al-Ahzab 33:59), that the Jilbaab is: "a cloth which covers the entire body... Ibn 'Abbaas (Radhiallaahu Ánhu) and 'Ubaidah As-Salmaani (Radhiallaahu Ánhu) said that it is to be fully wrapped around the women's body, so that nothing appears but one eye with which she can see." [Tafseer Al-Qurtubi Surah Al-Ahzab ayah # 59].

The Noble Qur’an declares:

يَـٰٓأَيُّہَا ٱلنَّبِىُّ قُل لِّأَزۡوَٲجِكَ وَبَنَاتِكَ وَنِسَآءِ ٱلۡمُؤۡمِنِينَ يُدۡنِينَ عَلَيۡہِنَّ مِن جَلَـٰبِيبِهِنَّۚ ذَٲلِكَ أَدۡنَىٰٓ أَن يُعۡرَفۡنَ فَلَا يُؤۡذَيۡنَۗ

Translation:

 “Oh Prophet! Tell your wives, your daughters and the women of the believers to draw their cloaks [veils] all over their bodies [i.e. screen themselves completely except the eyes or one eye to see the way].  That will be better, that they should be known [as free respectable women] so as not to be annoyed.” [Surah Ahzab/Verse 59]

وَقُل لِّلۡمُؤۡمِنَـٰتِ يَغۡضُضۡنَ مِنۡ أَبۡصَـٰرِهِنَّ وَيَحۡفَظۡنَ فُرُوجَهُنَّ وَلَا يُبۡدِينَ زِينَتَهُنَّ إِلَّا مَا ظَهَرَ مِنۡهَا‌ۖ وَلۡيَضۡرِبۡنَ بِخُمُرِهِنَّ عَلَىٰ جُيُوبِہِنَّ‌ۖ وَلَا يُبۡدِينَ زِينَتَهُنَّ إِلَّا لِبُعُولَتِهِنَّ أَوۡ ءَابَآٮِٕهِنَّ أَوۡ ءَابَآءِ بُعُولَتِهِنَّ أَوۡ أَبۡنَآٮِٕهِنَّ أَوۡ أَبۡنَآءِ بُعُولَتِهِنَّ أَوۡ إِخۡوَٲنِهِنَّ أَوۡ بَنِىٓ إِخۡوَٲنِهِنَّ أَوۡ بَنِىٓ أَخَوَٲتِهِنَّ أَوۡ نِسَآٮِٕهِنَّ أَوۡ مَا مَلَكَتۡ أَيۡمَـٰنُهُنَّ أَوِ ٱلتَّـٰبِعِينَ غَيۡرِ أُوْلِى ٱلۡإِرۡبَةِ مِنَ ٱلرِّجَالِ أَوِ ٱلطِّفۡلِ ٱلَّذِينَ لَمۡ يَظۡهَرُواْ عَلَىٰ عَوۡرَٲتِ ٱلنِّسَآءِ‌ۖ وَلَا يَضۡرِبۡنَ بِأَرۡجُلِهِنَّ لِيُعۡلَمَ مَا يُخۡفِينَ مِن زِينَتِهِنَّ‌ۚ

Translation:

And tell the believing women to lower their gaze and be modest, and to display of their adornment only that which is apparent, and to draw their veils over their bosoms, and not to reveal their adornment save to their own husbands or fathers or husbands' fathers, or their sons or their husbands' sons, or their brothers or their brothers' sons or sisters' sons, or their women, or their slaves, or male attendants who lack vigour, or children who know naught of women's nakedness. And let them not stamp their feet so as to reveal what they hide of their adornment. [Surah Nūr/ Verse 31]

Allah Ta’ala says clearly that a woman’s body should be covered by loose-fitting, non-transparent clothing so that the shape of her body is not revealed. The Hijaab hides the beauty of the woman’s form. No one can dispute that a woman’s primary focus of beauty is her face. Therefore, if Allah Ta’ala places so much of emphasis on hiding the beauty of a woman’s body. It is only logical that the centre of greater attraction – the face – should without a doubt also be covered. Referring to the wives [Radhiallaahu Anhunna] of Rasulullah (Sallallaahu Alayhi Wasallam) warns the men:

وَإِذَا سَأَلۡتُمُوهُنَّ مَتَـٰعً۬ا فَسۡـَٔلُوهُنَّ مِن وَرَآءِ حِجَابٍ۬ۚ ذَٲلِڪُمۡ أَطۡهَرُ لِقُلُوبِكُمۡ وَقُلُوبِهِنَّۚ

 “And when you ask (His ladies) for anything you want, ask them from behind a curtain: that makes for greater purity for your hearts and theirs.” [Ahzaab/ Verse 53]

If Allah Ta’ala expects the prophet’s wives to be so guarded then surely none of the believing women can claim greater purity of heart and consequently exemption from the directive to hide their beauty.

Refer to the following hadith:

عَنْ عَائِشَةَ، قَالَتْ كَانَ الرُّكْبَانُ يَمُرُّونَ بِنَا وَنَحْنُ مَعَ رَسُولِ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم مُحْرِمَاتٌ فَإِذَا حَاذَوْا بِنَا سَدَلَتْ إِحْدَانَا جِلْبَابَهَا مِنْ رَأْسِهَا إِلَى وَجْهِهَا فَإِذَا جَاوَزُونَا كَشَفْنَاهُ

Translation:

 Hadhrat Aaisha [Radhiyallaahu Anha] says, ‘[during Hajj in the state of Ihraam] when the male should walk in front of us while in the company of Rasulullah (Sallallaahu Alayhi Wasallam), then we would drop our veils from the head over the face.’

This Hadith emphatically shows the manner adopted by the honoured wives of Rasulullah [Sallallaahu Alayhi Wasallam]. They have exemplified an extremely dignified way of life for the women of the Ummah.

باب فِي الْمُحْرِمَةِ تُغَطِّي وَجْهَهَا

 

Narrated Aisha, Ummul Mu'minin:

Riders would pass us when we accompanied the Messenger of Allah (ﷺ) while we were in the sacred state (wearing ihram). When they came by us, one of us would let down her outer garment from her head over her face, and when they had passed on, we would uncover our faces. [Sunan Abu-Dawood]

 

حَدَّثَنَا أَحْمَدُ بْنُ حَنْبَلٍ، حَدَّثَنَا هُشَيْمٌ، أَخْبَرَنَا يَزِيدُ بْنُ أَبِي زِيَادٍ، عَنْ مُجَاهِدٍ، عَنْ عَائِشَةَ، قَالَتْ كَانَ الرُّكْبَانُ يَمُرُّونَ بِنَا وَنَحْنُ مَعَ رَسُولِ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم مُحْرِمَاتٌ فَإِذَا حَاذَوْا بِنَا سَدَلَتْ إِحْدَانَا جِلْبَابَهَا مِنْ رَأْسِهَا إِلَى وَجْهِهَا فَإِذَا جَاوَزُونَا كَشَفْنَاهُ ‏.

المسند الموضوعي الجامع للكتب العشرة (14/ 84)

حَدَّثَنَا أَحْمَدُ بْنُ حَنْبَلٍ، حَدَّثَنَا هُشَيْمٌ، أَخْبَرَنَا يَزِيدُ بْنُ أَبِي زِيَادٍ، عَنْ مُجَاهِدٍ، عَنْ عَائِشَةَ، قَالَتْ: "كَانَ الرُّكْبَانُ يَمُرُّونَ بِنَا وَنَحْنُ مَعَ رَسُولِ اللَّهِ صَلَّى اللهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ مُحْرِمَاتٌ، فَإِذَا حَاذَوْا بِنَا سَدَلَتْ إِحْدَانَا جِلْبَابَهَا مِنْ رَأْسِهَا عَلَى وَجْهِهَا فَإِذَا جَاوَزُونَا كَشَفْنَاهُ" , (د) 1833 [قال الألباني]: ضعيف

 

-

 

- وَقَدْ رَوَى يَزِيدُ بْنُ أَبِي زِيَادٍ وَفِي الْقَلْبِ مِنْهُ عَنْ مُجَاهِدٍ، عَنْ عَائِشَةَ قَالَتْ: كُنَّا مَعَ رَسُولِ اللَّهِ صَلَّى اللهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ، وَنَحْنُ مُحْرِمُونَ فَإِذَا مَرَّ بِنَا الرَّكْبُ سَدَلْنَا الثَّوْبَ عَلَى وَجْهِنَا، حَدَّثَنَاهُ عَبْدُ اللَّهِ بْنُ سَعِيدٍ الْأَشَجُّ حَدَّثَنَا ابْنُ إِدْرِيسَ قَالَ: سَمِعْتُ يَزِيدَ بْنَ أَبِي زِيَادٍ ح وَحَدَّثَنَا يُوسُفُ بْنُ مُوسَى حَدَّثَنَا جَرِيرٌ ح حَدَّثَنَا مُحَمَّدُ بْنُ هِشَامٍ حَدَّثَنَا هُشَيْمٌ جَمِيعًا عَنْ يَزِيدَ بْنِ أَبِي زِيَادٍ قَالَ فِي حَدِيثِ جَرِيرٍ، فَإِذَا جَاوَزْنَا. . . . .، وَفِي حَدِيثِ هُشَيْمٍ، فَإِذَا جَاوَزْنَا كَشَفْنَاهُ, (خز) 2691 قال الأعظمي: إسناده ضعيف

المسند الموضوعي الجامع للكتب العشرة (14/ 85)

وَحَدَّثَنِي عَنْ مَالِكٍ، عَنْ هِشَامِ بْنِ عُرْوَةَ، عَنْ فَاطِمَةَ بِنْتِ الْمُنْذِرِ أَنَّهَا قَالَتْ: كُنَّا نُخَمِّرُ وُجُوهَنَا وَنَحْنُ مُحْرِمَاتٌ، وَنَحْنُ مَعَ أَسْمَاءَ بِنْتِ أَبِي بَكْرٍ الصِّدِّيقِ. , (ط) 919

 

حَدَّثَنَا مُحَمَّدُ بْنُ الْعَلَاءِ بْنِ كُرَيْبٍ، حَدَّثَنَا زَكَرِيَّا بْنُ عَدِيٍّ، عَنْ إِبْرَاهِيمَ بْنِ حُمَيْدٍ، حَدَّثَنَا هِشَامُ بْنُ عُرْوَةَ، عَنْ فَاطِمَةَ بِنْتِ الْمُنْذِرِ، عَنْ أَسْمَاءَ قَالَتُ: كُنَّا نُغَطِّي وُجُوهَنَا مِنَ الرِّجَالِ، وَكُنَّا نَمْتَشِطُ قَبْلَ ذَلِكَ, (خز) 2690 قال الأعظمي: إسناده

صحيح

الكتاب: المسند الموضوعي الجامع للكتب العشرة

المؤلف: صهيب عبد الجبار

 

سنن أبي داود (2/ 167)

حَدَّثَنَا أَحْمَدُ بْنُ حَنْبَلٍ، حَدَّثَنَا هُشَيْمٌ، أَخْبَرَنَا يَزِيدُ بْنُ أَبِي زِيَادٍ، عَنْ مُجَاهِدٍ، عَنْ عَائِشَةَ، قَالَتْ: «كَانَ الرُّكْبَانُ يَمُرُّونَ بِنَا وَنَحْنُ مَعَ رَسُولِ اللَّهِ صَلَّى اللهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ مُحْرِمَاتٌ، فَإِذَا حَاذَوْا بِنَا سَدَلَتْ إِحْدَانَا جِلْبَابَهَا مِنْ رَأْسِهَا عَلَى وَجْهِهَا فَإِذَا جَاوَزُونَا كَشَفْنَاهُ»

الناشر: المكتبة العصرية، صيدا – بيروت

 

صحيح ابن خزيمة (4/ 203)

حَدَّثَنَا مُحَمَّدُ بْنُ الْعَلَاءِ بْنِ كُرَيْبٍ، حَدَّثَنَا زَكَرِيَّا بْنُ عَدِيٍّ، عَنْ إِبْرَاهِيمَ بْنِ حُمَيْدٍ، حَدَّثَنَا هِشَامُ بْنُ عُرْوَةَ، عَنْ فَاطِمَةَ بِنْتِ الْمُنْذِرِ، عَنْ أَسْمَاءَ قَالَتُ: كُنَّا نُغَطِّي وُجُوهَنَا مِنَ الرِّجَالِ، وَكُنَّا نَمْتَشِطُ قَبْلَ ذَلِكَ

[التعليق] 2690 - قال الأعظمي: إسناده صحيح

الناشر: المكتب الإسلامي - بيروت

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