Category: Food and Nourishment
Fatwa#: 37334
Asked Country: United Kingdom

Answered Date: Apr 28,2017

Title: Slaughter of the people of the book

Question

Assalāmu ʿalaykum wa raḥmatullāhi wa barakātuh, I am writing to you with regards to a ruling written by the honourable Mufti Ebrahim Desai, entitled 'Meat and poultry slaughtered by Ahlul-Kitab'. I would like to ask why you consider the meat of the people of the book as impermissible. As The Almighty says: 'This day are (all) good things made lawful for you. The food of those who have received the Scripture is lawful for you, and your food is lawful for them'(Translation: Marmaduke Pickthall)(Al-Ma'idah:5) With regards to the method of slaughter and taking Allaah's name , I have not come across any clear method of slaughter that the Christians have followed in the past or which they follow today. In a Hadeeth narrated by Al Bukhaari: from ‘Aa’ishah (may Allaah be pleased with her), that some people said: O Messenger of Allaah, some people bring meat to us, and we do not know whether they mentioned the name of Allaah over it or not. The Messenger of Allaah (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) said: “Mention the name of Allaah over it and eat.” However, in a different ruling you have approved for men to marry women from the people of the book, even though this ruling is found in the same verse that permits us to eat the food of the people of the book! Some argue that the people of the book are not the same as the ones at the time of our Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him). However, we know that the Christians of today believe in the trinity as did the Christians of the time of the Messenger (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) and the same can be said about the Jews and their beliefs. With regards to your point that 'they cannot be trusted anymore in matters pertaining to Halaal/Haraam' the people of the book have a history of not being truthful. They have committed more horrendous crimes and betrayal of trust as is evident by numerous incidents that occurred during the time of the Prophet (peace and blessings be upon him) yet Allaah made permissible for us their food! Awaiting your reply, Your brother in Islam

Answer

In the Name of Allah, the Most Gracious, the Most Merciful.

As-salāmu ‘alaykum wa-rahmatullāhi wa-barakātuh.

You refer to two issues:

1] Consuming meat slaughtered by Christians and Jews

2] Marriage to Christian and Jewish woman

You imply that since it is permissible to marry a Christian and Jewish woman, the meat slaughtered by them should also be permissible. To some extent, you are correct. However, both, slaughtering and marriage must be conducted with their overarching principles in both are maintained, then both will be permissible. If the overarching principles in any one is not fulfilled, that won’t be permissible.

It is true the animal slaughtered by Christian and Jews is permissible based on the following verse:

ٱلۡيَوۡمَ أُحِلَّ لَكُمُ ٱلطَّيِّبَـٰتُ‌ۖ وَطَعَامُ ٱلَّذِينَ أُوتُواْ ٱلۡكِتَـٰبَ حِلٌّ۬ لَّكُمۡ وَطَعَامُكُمۡ حِلٌّ۬ لَّهُمۡ‌ۖ

Translation:

This day are (all) good things made lawful for you. The food of those who have received the Scripture is lawful for you, and your food is lawful for them [Surah Al-Maidah/ Verse 5]

However, consider the following verse:

فكلوا مما ذكر اسم الله عليه إن كنتم بآياته مؤمنين (118) وما لكم ألا تأكلوا مما ذكر اسم الله عليه وقد فصل لكم ما حرم عليكم إلا ما اضطررتم إليه وإن كثيرا ليضلون بأهوائهم بغير علم إن ربك هو أعلم بالمعتدين (119) ...... ولا تأكلوا مما لم يذكر اسم الله عليه وإنه لفسق وإن الشياطين ليوحون إلى أوليائهم ليجادلوكم وإن أطعتموهم إنكم لمشركون (121)

Translation:

“So, eat (the flesh) of that (animal) upon which the name of Allah has been invoked (when slaughtering), if you do believe in His verses. What should cause you to avoid eating of that upon which the name of Allah has been invoked, while He has spelled out to you all that He has made unlawful for you, except that to which you are compelled by extreme necessity? Surely, there are many who misguide people on the basis of their desires without having knowledge. Surely, your Lord is the best Knower of those who cross the limits. Do not eat that (meat) over which the name of Allah has not been pronounced. This is surely a sin. The Satan’s inspire their friends to dispute with you. If you were to obey them, you would be Mushriks. (6:118-119, 121)

It is clear that whoever, slaughters an animal, a Christian, a Muslim or Jew, have to take the name of Allah for the meat of the animal to be halal.

You refer to the following Hadith:

عَنْ عَائِشَةَ ـ رضى الله عنها ـ أَنَّ قَوْمًا، قَالُوا لِلنَّبِيِّ صلى الله عليه وسلم إِنَّ قَوْمًا يَأْتُونَا بِاللَّحْمِ لاَ نَدْرِي أَذُكِرَ اسْمُ اللَّهِ عَلَيْهِ أَمْ لاَ فَقَالَ ‏ "‏ سَمُّوا عَلَيْهِ أَنْتُمْ وَكُلُوهُ ‏"‏‏.‏ قَالَتْ وَكَانُوا حَدِيثِي عَهْدٍ بِالْكُفْرِ‏.‏ تَابَعَهُ عَلِيٌّ عَنِ الدَّرَاوَرْدِيِّ‏.‏ وَتَابَعَهُ أَبُو خَالِدٍ وَالطُّفَاوِيُّ‏.‏[1]

Translation:

Hadhrat Aisha [Radhiallahu Anha] narrates that a group of people said to the Prophet, "Some people bring us meat and we do not know whether they have mentioned Allah's Name or not on slaughtering the animal." He said, "Mention Allah's Name on it and eat." Those people had embraced Islam recently.

That Hadith refers to the animals slaughtered by Muslims. Rasulullah Sallallahu Alaihi Wa-Sallam advice to have good opinion about them as they must have recited the name of Allah as was the norm.

As far as Nikah is concerned, that too has to be performed in a way prescribed by Sharia for the Nikah to be valid.

And Allah Ta’āla Knows Best

Ridwaan Ibn Khalid Esmail [Kasak]

Student Darul Iftaa

Katete, Zambia


Checked and Approved by,
Mufti Ebrahim Desai.

 



[1] فيض الباري على صحيح البخاري (5/ 659) 

 - باب ذَبِيحَةِ الأَعْرَابِ وَنَحْوِهِمْ

5507 - حَدَّثَنَا مُحَمَّدُ بْنُ عُبَيْدِ اللَّهِ حَدَّثَنَا أُسَامَةُ بْنُ حَفْصٍ الْمَدَنِىُّ عَنْ هِشَامِ بْنِ عُرْوَةَ عَنْ أَبِيهِ عَنْ عَائِشَةَ - رضى الله عنها - أَنَّ قَوْمًا قَالُوا لِلنَّبِىِّ - صلى الله عليه وسلم - إِنَّ قَوْمًا يَأْتُونَا بِاللَّحْمِ لاَ نَدْرِى أَذُكِرَ اسْمُ اللَّهِ عَلَيْهِ أَمْ لاَ فَقَالَ «سَمُّوا عَلَيْهِ أَنْتُمْ وَكُلُوهُ». قَالَتْ وَكَانُوا حَدِيثِى عَهْدٍ بِالْكُفْرِ.

تَابَعَهُ عَلِىٌّ عَنِ الدَّرَاوَرْدِىِّ. وَتَابَعَهُ أَبُو خَالِدٍ وَالطُّفَاوِىُّ. طرفاه 2057، 7398 - تحفة 16762، 17033، 16950، 17235

أي الجهلاء الذين يتوهم فيهم ترك التسمية تهاونًا، أو لجهلهم بالمسائل، وليس معنى قوله: سموا عليه أنتم، وكلوه، أن التسمية ليست بواجبة، بل معناه أن احملوا أنتم حالهم على أعدل الأحوال، وسموا أنتم قبل الأكل، فإن محل تسميتكم الآن، فلا تغفلوا عنها، وأما تحل تسميتهم فكان عند الذبح، والظاهر من حالهم أنهم قد أتوا بما وجب عليهم.

الناشر: دار الكتب العلمية بيروت – لبنان

 

التوضيح لشرح الجامع الصحيح (26/ 449)

.

وفيه: أن ما في الأسواق من اللحم محمول على الصحة وكذا ما ذبحه الأعراب؛ لأن الغالب أنهم عرفوا التسمية وعلى ذلك عمل المسلمين، وقال أبو عمر بن عبد البر: فيه من الفقه أن ما ذبحه المسلم ولم يعرف هل سمى الله عليه أم لا؟ لا بأس بأكله وهو محمول على أنه قد سمى، والمؤمن لا يُظن به إلا الخير وذبيحته وصيده محمول على السلامة حتى يصح فيه غير ذلك من تعمد ترك التسمية ونحوه.

وقد قيل في معنى هذا الحديث أنه - عليه السلام - أمرهم بأكلها في أول الإسلام قبل أن ينزل عليه: {وَلَا تَأْكُلُوا مِمَّا لَمْ يُذْكَرِ اسْمُ اللهِ عَلَيْهِ} [الأنعام: 121] وهو قول ضعيف لا دليل على صحته، ولا يعرف وجه ما قال قائله، وفي الحديث نفسه ما يرده؛ لأنه أمرهم فيه بالتسمية على أكله فدل على أن هذِه الآية كانت نزلت عليه ومما يدل على بطلان هذا القول (أن) (1) هذا الحديث كان بالمدينة، وأن أهل باديتها هم المشار إليهم ولا يختلف العلماء أن هذِه الآية نزلت في سورة الأنعام بمكة.

وقام الإجماع على أن التسمية على الأكل للتبرك لا مدخل فيها للذكاة بوجه من الوجوه، وقد استدل جماعة من أهل العلم على أن التسمية على الذبيحة ليست بواجبة بهذا الحديث.

وقالوا: لو كانت التسمية واجبة على الذبيحة لما أمرهم - عليه السلام - بأكل ذبيحة الأعراب أهل البادية، إذ يمكن أن يسموا ويمكن ألا بجهلهم، ولو كان الأصل ألا يؤكل إلا من ذبائح المسلمين، أو ما صحت التسمية عليه لم يجز استباحة شيء من ذلك إلا بيقين من التسمية؛ إذ الفرائض لا تؤدى إلا بيقين (1).

وأغرب ابن حزم فقال: تسمية الله فرض على كل آكل عند ابتداء أكله لحديث عمر بن أبي سلمة الذي فيه: "سم الله وكل مما يليك " (2). .

الناشر: دار النوادر، دمشق – سوريا

 

Hunting, Slaughtering

Chapter: The animals slaughtered by Bedouins or the like

باب ذَبِيحَةِ الأَعْرَابِ وَنَحْوِهِمْ

Narrated `Aisha:

A group of people said to the Prophet, "Some people bring us meat and we do not know whether they have mentioned Allah's Name or not on slaughtering the animal." He said, "Mention Allah's Name on it and eat." Those people had embraced Islam recently.

حَدَّثَنَا مُحَمَّدُ بْنُ عُبَيْدِ اللَّهِ، حَدَّثَنَا أُسَامَةُ بْنُ حَفْصٍ الْمَدَنِيُّ، عَنْ هِشَامِ بْنِ عُرْوَةَ، عَنْ أَبِيهِ، عَنْ عَائِشَةَ ـ رضى الله عنها ـ أَنَّ قَوْمًا، قَالُوا لِلنَّبِيِّ صلى الله عليه وسلم إِنَّ قَوْمًا يَأْتُونَا بِاللَّحْمِ لاَ نَدْرِي أَذُكِرَ اسْمُ اللَّهِ عَلَيْهِ أَمْ لاَ فَقَالَ ‏ "‏ سَمُّوا عَلَيْهِ أَنْتُمْ وَكُلُوهُ ‏"‏‏.‏ قَالَتْ وَكَانُوا حَدِيثِي عَهْدٍ بِالْكُفْرِ‏.‏ تَابَعَهُ عَلِيٌّ عَنِ الدَّرَاوَرْدِيِّ‏.‏ وَتَابَعَهُ أَبُو خَالِدٍ وَالطُّفَاوِيُّ‏.‏

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