Category: Business Matters
Fatwa#: 37184
Asked Country: Malawi

Answered Date: Nov 09,2016

Title: Landlord and tenant issues

Question

Assalam Alaikum

Mufti sb

Moulana can u shed some light on those landlord demanding the cost of maintenance I.e. Geyser or plumbing related problems or building related problems  from the tenants. The tenets he pays rent not only to stay in the house but of course he stays to use those basic facilities too. Perfect example is the car we hire. We pay the charge for hire and that includes wear and tear of the car and the one who is hiring the car is not supposed.to pay additional charge for maintenance after he has used the car.

Some landlords not only force us to maintain they also force us to replace anything which becomes nonfunctional due to years of use. The argument they give is u have been using it and in some cases the same thing might have been used by the previous tenants too but still we r compelled to replace or maintain that.

Some they force us to do the paintwork and all other maintenance works while leaving the flat to move to other places

What does shariah say for the above points which I have raised . We feel oppressed and Allah knows how much everyday we feel being tenants.

does it give the right to force the charge on us if he wants?

Can u explain what is the duty of the landlord and what is the tenants?

Jazakallah

Answer

In the Name of Allah, the Most Gracious, the Most Merciful.

As-salāmu ‘alaykum wa-rahmatullāhi wa-barakātuh.

A landlord hires the usufruct of the property. The tenant pays for the use of the property. It is the responsibility of the landlord to ensure that the core aspects of the property are useable.

The geyser and plumbing are core aspects of the property for which the landlord is responsible. The landlord cannot demand that the tenant pay for the replacement or maintenance of the geyser and plumbing.[1]

If it is proven that the tenant has damaged the core aspects of the property, then only the landlord can hold the tenant responsible. The tenant is only responsible for the day to day expenses for example, the utility bills.[2][3][4]

 

And Allah Ta’āla Knows Best

Saad Haque

Student Darul Iftaa
New Jersey, USA

Checked and Approved by,
Mufti Ebrahim Desai.



[1] تحفة الفقهاء (2/ 350)

ثمَّ تطيين الدَّار وَإِصْلَاح ميازيبها وَمَا وهى من بنائها على رب الدَّار دون الْمُسْتَأْجر حَتَّى تكون صَالِحَة للِانْتِفَاع وَلَكِن لَا يجْبر على ذَلِك لِأَن الْمَالِك لَا يجْبر على إصْلَاح ملكه لَكِن يثبت الْخِيَار للْمُسْتَأْجر لِأَن هَذَا فِي معنى الْعَيْب

[2] المبسوط للسرخسي (15/ 144)

وَعِمَارَةُ الدَّارِ وَتَطْيِينُهَا وَإِصْلَاحُ الْمِيزَابِ وَمَا وَهِيَ مِنْ بِنَائِهَا عَلَى رَبِّ الدَّارِ؛ لِأَنَّ بِهِ يَتَمَكَّنُ الْمُسْتَأْجِرُ مِنْ سُكْنَى الدَّارِ، وَكَذَلِكَ كُلُّ سُتْرَةٍ يَضُرُّ تَرْكُهَا بِالسُّكْنَى؛ لِأَنَّ الْمُسْتَأْجِرَ بِمُطْلَقِ الْعَقْدِ اسْتَحَقَّ الْمَعْقُودَ عَلَيْهِ بِصِفَةِ السَّلَامَةِ فَإِنْ أَبَى أَنْ يَفْعَلَ فَلِلْمُسْتَأْجِرِ أَنْ يَخْرُجَ مِنْهَا لِوُجُودِ الْعَيْبِ بِالْمَعْقُودِ عَلَيْهِ إلَّا أَنْ يَكُونَ اسْتَأْجَرَهَا وَهِيَ كَذَلِكَ وَقَدْ رَآهَا فَحِينَئِذٍ هُوَ رَاضٍ بِالْعَيْبِ فَلَا يَرُدُّهَا لِأَجْلِهِ،

[3] An introduction to Islamic Finance by Mufti Muhammad Taqi Usmani

As the corpus of the leased property remains in the ownership of the lessor, all the liabilities emerging from the ownership shall be borne by the lessor, but the liabilities referable to the use of the property shall be borne by the lessee.

Example: A has leased his house to B. The taxes referable to the property shall be borne by A, while the water taxes, electricity bills and all expenses referable to the use of the house shall be borne by B, the lessee.

[4] بدائع الصنائع في ترتيب الشرائع (4/ 208) 

وتطيين الدار، وإصلاح ميزابها، وما وهى من بنائها على رب الدار دون المستأجر، لأن الدار ملكه وإصلاح الملك على المالك، لكن لا يجبر على ذلك؛ لأن المالك لا يجبر على إصلاح ملكه، وللمستأجر أن يخرج إن لم يعمل المؤاجر ذلك؛ لأنه عيب بالمعقود عليه، والمالك لا يجبر على إزالة العيب عن ملكه، لكن للمستأجر أن لا يرضى بالعيب حتى لو كان استأجر وهي كذلك ورآها فلا خيار له؛ لأنه رضي بالمبيع المعيب،

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