Fatwa: # 37167
Category: Business Matters
Country: Saudi Arabia
Date: 22nd March 2019

Title

Investing in a Mudharabah Scheme

Question

I have invested some money in a muslim company in India which is fighting against riba.The company is doing buisness in Gold, Textiles, Food products, Mineral Water, Electronic items, Haj & Umrah services etc--------.We can invest money only in Gold , Textiles , Food products only. For Gold investment, the company is giving profit of 40 percent to customer and 60 percent they keep with them, For Textile and Food product investment, the company is giving profit of 50 percent to customer and 50 percent they keep with them, So please tell me that the investment i have done is legal ? Is the profit i am receiving is Halal ? - Jazakallah Khair. 

Answer

In the Name of Allah, the Most Gracious, the Most Merciful.

As-salāmu ‘alaykum wa-rahmatullāhi wa-barakātuh.

Your desire to adopt a halaal course of action is encouraging. Adopting halaal invokes the mercy of Allah Ta'laa and barakah in your wealth.

According to the information provided by you, you have invested in a Mudharabah Model.

Mudarabah is wherein one partner contributes investment capital to the partnership while the other partner contributes management skills. The investor is referred to as the Rab Ul-Maal while the entrepreneur is referred to as the Mudharib.[1]   

The investor and the entrepreneur mutually agree to share a percentage of the net profit, for example, 60% and 40%. [2]

All expenses will be paid from the profit and the balance will then be distributed as per agreement.

The entrepreneur cannot receive a wage or a fixed percentage based on the capital amount. [3]

All losses will be attributed to the investor. The Mudharib will merely lose his efforts in managing the Mudharabah portfolio. [4]

 

The above condition is subject to the fact that the Mudharib has worked with due diligence. If it is proven that, he has breached his obligations or he failed to discharge his obligations under this agreement, then the Mudharib will be liable for the loss of the Mudharabah.

 

The profit received will be Halaal for you.

 

And Allah Ta’āla Knows Best

Muhammad I.V Patel

Student Darul Iftaa
Lusaka, Zambia

 

Checked and Approved by,
Mufti Ebrahim Desai.

 


بدائع الصنائع في ترتيب الشرائع (6/ 79) [1]

(وَأَمَّا) السُّنَّةُ، فَمَا رُوِيَ عَنْ ابْنِ عَبَّاسٍ - رَضِيَ اللَّهُ عَنْهُمَا - أَنَّهُ قَالَ: «كَانَ سَيِّدُنَا الْعَبَّاسُ بْنُ عَبْدِ الْمُطَّلِبِ إذَا دَفَعَ الْمَالَ مُضَارَبَةً، اشْتَرَطَ عَلَى صَاحِبِهِ أَنْ لَا يَسْلُكَ بِهِ بَحْرًا وَلَا يَنْزِلَ بِهِ وَادِيًا، وَلَا يَشْتَرِيَ بِهِ دَابَّةً ذَاتَ كَبِدٍ رَطْبَةٍ، فَإِنْ فَعَلَ ذَلِكَ ضَمِنَ فَبَلَغَ شَرْطُهُ رَسُولَ اللَّهِ - صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ - فَأَجَازَ شَرْطَهُ» وَكَذَا بُعِثَ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ - صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ - وَالنَّاسُ يَتَعَاقَدُونَ الْمُضَارَبَةَ فَلَمْ يُنْكِرْ عَلَيْهِمْ وَذَلِكَ تَقْرِيرٌ لَهُمْ عَلَى ذَلِكَ؛ وَالتَّقْرِيرُ أَحَدُ وُجُوهِ السُّنَّةِ

 

بدائع الصنائع في ترتيب الشرائع (6/ 85) [2]

(وَمِنْهَا) أَنْ يَكُونَ الْمَشْرُوطُ لِكُلِّ وَاحِدٍ مِنْهُمَا مِنْ الْمُضَارِبِ وَرَبِّ الْمَالِ مِنْ الرِّبْحِ جُزْءًا شَائِعًا، نِصْفًا أَوْ ثُلُثًا أَوْ رُبْعًا، فَإِنْ شَرَطَا عَدَدًا مُقَدَّرًا بِأَنْ شَرَطَا أَنْ يَكُونَ لِأَحَدِهِمَا مِائَةُ دِرْهَمٍ مِنْ الرِّبْحِ أَوْ أَقَلُّ أَوْ أَكْثَرُ وَالْبَاقِي لِلْآخَرِ لَا يَجُوزُ، وَالْمُضَارَبَةُ فَاسِدَةٌ؛ لِأَنَّ الْمُضَارَبَةَ نَوْعٌ مِنْ الشَّرِكَةِ، وَهِيَ الشَّرِكَةُ فِي الرِّبْحِ، وَهَذَا شَرْطٌ يُوجِبُ قَطْعَ الشَّرِكَةِ فِي الرِّبْحِ؛ لِجَوَازِ أَنْ لَا يَرْبَحَ الْمُضَارِبُ إلَّا هَذَا الْقَدْرَ الْمَذْكُورَ، فَيَكُونُ ذَلِكَ لِأَحَدِهِمَا دُونَ الْآخَرِ، فَلَا تَتَحَقَّقُ الشَّرِكَةُ، فَلَا يَكُونُ التَّصَرُّفُ مُضَارَبَةً

 

 

بدائع الصنائع في ترتيب الشرائع (6/ 106) [3]

(وَأَمَّا) مَا فِيهِ النَّفَقَةُ فَالنَّفَقَةُ فِي مَالِ الْمُضَارَبَةِ، وَلَهُ أَنْ يُنْفِقَ مِنْ مَالِ نَفْسِهِ، مَا لَهُ أَنْ يُنْفِقَ مِنْ مَالِ الْمُضَارَبَةِ عَلَى نَفْسِهِ، وَيَكُونُ دَيْنًا فِي الْمُضَارَبَةِ حَتَّى كَانَ لَهُ أَنْ يَرْجِعَ فِيهَا؛ لِأَنَّ الْإِنْفَاقَ مِنْ الْمَالِ وَتَدْبِيرَهُ إلَيْهِ، فَكَانَ لَهُ أَنْ يُنْفِقَ مِنْ مَالِهِ، وَيَرْجِعَ بِهِ عَلَى مَالِ الْمُضَارَبَةِ، كَالْوَصِيِّ إذَا أَنْفَقَ عَلَى الصَّغِيرِ مِنْ مَالِ نَفْسِهِ إنَّ لَهُ أَنْ يَرْجِعَ بِمَا أَنْفَقَ عَلَى مَالِ الصَّغِيرِ لِمَا قُلْنَا، كَذَا هَذَا لَهُ أَنْ يَرْجِعَ بِمَا أَنْفَقَ فِي مَالِ الْمُضَارَبَةِ

 

 

بدائع الصنائع في ترتيب الشرائع (6/ 87) [4]

فَإِذَا ظَهَرَ فِي الْمَالِ رِبْحٌ صَارَ شَرِيكًا فِيهِ بِقَدْرِ حِصَّتِهِ مِنْ الرِّبْحِ؛ لِأَنَّهُ مَلَكَ جُزْءًا مِنْ الْمَالِ الْمَشْرُوطِ بِعَمَلِهِ، وَالْبَاقِي لِرَبِّ الْمَالِ؛ لِأَنَّهُ نَمَاءُ مَالِهِ، فَإِذَا فَسَدَتْ بِوَجْهٍ مِنْ الْوُجُوهِ صَارَ بِمَنْزِلَةِ الْأَجِيرِ لِرَبِّ الْمَالِ، فَإِذَا خَالَفَ شَرْطَ رَبِّ الْمَالِ صَارَ بِمَنْزِلَةِ الْغَاصِبِ، وَيَصِيرُ الْمَالُ مَضْمُونًا عَلَيْهِ، وَيَكُونُ رِبْحُ الْمَالِ كُلُّهُ بَعْدَ مَا صَارَ مَضْمُونًا عَلَيْهِ لَهُ؛ لِأَنَّ الرِّبْحَ بِالضَّمَانِ لَكِنَّهُ لَا يَطِيبُ لَهُ فِي قَوْلِ أَبِي حَنِيفَةَ وَمُحَمَّدٍ رَحِمَهُمَا اللَّهُ وَعِنْدَ أَبِي يُوسُفَ - رَحِمَهُ اللَّهُ - يَطِيبُ لَهُ وَهُوَ عَلَى اخْتِلَافِهِمْ فِي الْغَاصِبِ وَالْمُودَعِ إذَا تَصَرَّفَا فِي الْمَغْصُوبِ الْوَدِيعَةِ وَرَبِحَا

 

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