Category: Beliefs and Practices (Aqeedah)
Fatwa#: 36929
Asked Country: Australia

Answered Date: Nov 15,2016

Title: Ambiya are sinless?

Question

Salam

In Fatwa# 16229, it was mentioned that the it is the belief of the Ahlus Sunnah wa al-Jama’ah that the Ambiya are sinles. Can you please refer to the Quran or the sahih hadith from where can we find this.
Also can you please explain the concept of major and minor sins regarding the prophets?

JazakAllah

Answer

In the Name of Allah, the Most Gracious, the Most Merciful.

As-salāmu ‘alaykum wa-rahmatullāhi wa-barakātuh.

The anbiyaa [prophets] being sinless and being free from kufr,shirk and sins is an issue of Aqaaid.[beliefs][1]

In general, issues of Aqaaid are deduced through absolute and authentic sources.[2] One of the sources of Sharia is Ijmaa, which refers to consensus. Every Mujtahid was an expert in Quraan, Ahadith and related sciences. The Ummah trusted their deep knowledge of Sharia and followed their guidance. Every Mujtahid had an independent right at arriving at his academic conclusion. When there are differences of opinions among the Mujtahideen, we respect every view due to their intellectual capability in Deen. What can then be said about a unanimous decision of all the Mujtahideen? Everyone applied their own independent mind and research and everyone arrived at the same conclusion. Such an opinion is indeed very strong and sound. Hence, the unanimous opinion of Mujtahidin is called Ijmaa and such a ruling is absolute like a ruling clearly expressed in the Quraan or Hadith Mutawatir [absolutely authentic] narration.[3] Our illustrious Mujtahideen have unanimously ruled that the prophets are Masoom[sinless]. Such a belief is Qatiee [absolute].You may refer to the footnotes for more details on Ijmaa.[4]

And Allah Ta’āla Knows Best

Ridwaan Ibn Khalid Esmail (Kasak)

Student Darul Iftaa
Katete, Zambia

Checked and Approved by,
Mufti Ebrahim Desai.

 



[1] ص: 37)فقه الأكبر

والأنبياء عَلَيْهِم الصَّلَاة وَالسَّلَام كلهم منزهون عَن الصَّغَائِر والكبائر وَالْكفْر والقبائح وَقد كَانَت مِنْهُم زلات وخطايا

وَمُحَمّد عَلَيْهِ الصَّلَاة وَالسَّلَام حَبِيبه وَعَبده وَرَسُوله وَنبيه وَصفيه ونقيه وَلم يعبد الصَّنَم وَلم يُشْرك بِاللَّه تَعَالَى طرفَة عين قطّ وَلم يرتكب صَغِيرَة وَلَا كَبِيرَة قطّ

الناشر: مكتبة الفرقان - الإمارات العربية

الطبعة: الأولى، 1419هـ - 1999

[2] أصول الشاشي (ص: 13)

فَإِن أصُول الْفِقْه أَرْبَعَة كتاب الله تَعَالَى وَسنة رَسُوله وَإِجْمَاع الْأمة وَالْقِيَاس

  أصول الشاشي (ص: 308)

قَالَ عَلَيْهِ الصلوة وَالسَّلَام لِمعَاذ بن جبل حِين بَعثه الى الْيمن قَالَ

(بِمَ تقضي يَا معَاذ) قَالَ بِكِتَاب الله تَعَالَى قَالَ

(فان لم تَجِد) قَالَ بِسنة رَسُول الله صلى الله عَلَيْهِ وَسلم قَالَ

(فان لم تَجِد)

قَالَ اجْتهد برأيي فصوبه رَسُول الله صلى الله عَلَيْهِ وَسلم فَقَالَ الْحَمد لله الَّذِي وفْق رَسُول رَسُول الله على مَا يحب ويرضاه

 

 

1)     [3] When all the Sahabah explicitly state that “we are unanimous upon this”

Ruling: This Ijma’ is upon the same level as a verse of the Qur’an or a Mutawatir report (الخبر المتواتر); it enforces indisputable action (العمل القطعي) and indisputable belief (العلم القطعي) such that one who rejects the matter will leave the fold of Islam.

أصول الشاشي (ص: 291)

أما الأول فَهُوَ بِمَنْزِلَة آيَة من كتاب الله تَعَالَى

ثمَّ الْإِجْمَاع بِنَصّ الْبَعْض وسكوت البَاقِينَ فَهُوَ بِمَنْزِلَة الْمُتَوَاتر

الناشر: دار الكتاب العربي - بيروت

 

[4] Fiqh[Sharée masail] are derived from four sources:

1] Quraan

2] Hadith

3]Ijmaa [consensus of the ummah]

4]Qiyaas [analogical decision]

 

When searching for a ruling of sharia, the fuqaha[Jurist] start with Quraan. if no ruling is found in the Quraan, the fuqaha go to hadith. if no ruling is found in hadith, the fuqaha go to Ijmaa and if the ruling is not found in Ijmaa the fuqaha make Qiyaas.

 

The Linguistic Definition of Al Ijma’ (الإجماع في اللغة)

Al Ijmā’ linguistically means:

‘Consensus’

 

The Definition of Al Ijma’ in Shari’ah (الإجماع في الشريعة)

Mullah Ji ̅wan has defined Ijmā’ in Shari’ah as:

‘A consensus of the pious Mujtahidin from the nation of the Prophet Muhammad Sallallahu Alayhi Wasallam of one time upon a view or action’.

 

How an Al Ijma’ Occurs (ركن الإجماع)

An Al Ijmā’ may occur in one of two ways:

                Al Azeemah (العزيمة): this when all the Mujtahidi ̅n state “we are unanimous upon this” or all the Mujtahidi ̅n begin to carry out the action that they have agreed upon.

                Al Rukhsah (الرخصة): this is when some of the Mujtahidi ̅n state that they are unanimous upon certain view or begin carrying out the action that they have agreed upon whilst another group of Mujtahidin remain silent. This is known as Al Ijma’ Al Sukooti (الإجماع السكوتي)

 

Individuals Who Are Capable of Forming an Al Ijma’ (أهل الإجماع)

The individuals who are capable of forming an Al Ijmā’ (أهل الإجماع) are the pious Mujtahidi ̅n who do not follow their desires and nor are they corrupt (فاسق) individuals.

who does not have a deep understanding of the principles of Fiqh is also not accepted as an individual capable of forming an Ijma’.

 

Conditions that are Not Necessary for an Al Ijma’ to Form

                It is not necessary for the individuals forming the Ijma’ to be the Sahabah

 

A Condition that is Necessary for an Al Ijma’ to Form

 

It is necessary for all the Mujtahidin to agree upon a matter for an Ijma’ to occur. If even one Mujtahid has a different view on a matter, an Ijma’ cannot occur upon that matter. This is because the Prophet Sallallahu Alayhi Wasallam said:

لَا تَجْتَمِعُ أُمَّتِيْ عَلَى ضَلَالَةٍ

“My nation cannot amalgamate upon falsehood” [Sunan-Tirmidhi 4/36 Darul- Garb- Al- Islami]

The word “nation” incorporates all the people of the nation, hence a difference of opinion from even one Mujtahid will prevent the formation of Ijmā’.

 

The Effect of an Al Ijma’

In principle, an Ijmā’ will give the ruling of indisputable evidence (قطعي), thus denying a matter that is established through Ijma’ will take a person out of the religion of Islam.

 

There is Ijmaa [consensus of this Ummat ]  that the messengers are sinless.  It is incumbent[wajib] according to Sharia to practise on Ijmaa, as an honour for this Ummat.

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