Category: Beliefs and Practices (Aqeedah)
Fatwa#: 36637
Asked Country: Canada

Answered Date: Feb 25,2017

Title: Can the citizens of a country be considered evil based on the nefarious actions of the country’s government?

Question

Hi Im Israeli and Jewish. I've read the Quran and some things of it are convincing like how the Quran knows about fetus formation, atmosphere orbits and general morality. However I have a few questions that are really undermining my beliefs 1: Muslims often complain its unjust to associate all Muslims being terrorists but I find many Muslims believe Israelis are evil because of negative events that the Israeli government has done. I also cannot understand the rationale for modern Muslim anti semitism as countries like Morocco Jews and Muslims had good relations and commentaries on the Quran mention that many of the early Muslims were Jews who converted 2: I don't understand why all if not most states that are majority Muslim are dysfunctional and often have arbitrary wars with other Muslim groups even though the Quran says a Muslim who unjustly kills another Muslim will go to hell forever. One Imam told me that since Islam is a belief any Muslim who really deviates from the Quran is not a Muslim, but I've heard another say that no Islamic country exists today. 3: I don't understand why the Quran appears to be organized the way it is, the chronology of the Quran is out of sequence as the surah where Jibreel tasks Mohamad with writing the Quran in the latter half of the Quran for example

Answer

In the Name of Allah, the Most Gracious, the Most Merciful.

As-salāmu ‘alaykum wa-rahmatullāhi wa-barakātuh.

You have referred to the following three queries:

1)    Is it correct for Muslims to believe that the citizens of a country are evil based upon the nefarious actions of the country’s government?

 

2)    Why are most if not all Muslim-Majority countries dysfunctional and why do they have arbitrary wars with one another?

 

3)    Why has the Qurān been ordered in the way that it has been ordered?

Is it correct for Muslims to believe that the citizens of a country are evil based upon of the nefarious actions of the country’s government?

Islām is a religion which promotes and extols justice. As Muslims, we are commanded to be just in our thinking and practice. Accordingly, it is incorrect to impetuously attribute the actions of a government towards its citizens.

In the Qurān, Muslims have been commanded to think rationally and to avoid labelling a group of people based upon the nefarious actions of a few.

Allah the Almighty says in the Qurān:

لَيْسُوْا سَوَاءً مِنْ أَهْلِ الْكِتَابِ أُمَّةٌ قَائِمَةٌ يَتْلُوْنَ آيَاتِ اللهِ آنَاءَ الَّليْلِ وَهُمْ يَسْجُدُوْنَ 

 

Translation:

“They are not [all] the same; among the People of the Scripture is a community standing [in obedience], reciting the verses of Allah during periods of the night and prostrating [in prayer].”[1]

[Chapter of the Family of Imran, verse 110]

In fact, the Qurān commands the Muslims to be just and maintain fairness even with the non-Muslims with whom the Muslims share differences.

Allah the Almighty also says in the Qurān:

وَلَا يَجْرِمَنَّكُمْ شَنَآنُ قَوْمٍ عَلَى أَنْ لَا تَعْدِلُوْا

“And do not let hatred of any people incite you such that you cannot deal justly”

 

[Chapter of the Table Spread, verse 8]

The Qurān has also advised for Muslims to be cordial and friendly to those non-Muslims that do not fight or harm the Muslims.

Allah the Almighty says in the Qurān:

لَا يَنْهَاكُمُ اللهُ عَنِ الَّذِيْنَ لَمْ يُقَاتِلُوْكُمْ فِي الدِّيْنِ وَلَمْ يُخْرِجُوْكُمْ مِنْ دِيَارِكُمْ أَنْ تَبَرُّوْهُمْ وَتُقْسِطُوْا إِلَيْهِمْ إِنَّ اللهَ يُحِبُّ الْمُقْسِطِيْنَ

Translation:

“Allah does not forbid you to show kindness and deal justly to those who did not make war against you on account of religion and did not drive you out of your homes. Allah loves those who are just”

[The Chapter of She who is to be Tested, verse 8]

In fact, the scholars of Islām have recommended that a Muslim should visit the Jews and Christians, especially if they are sick or unwell.[2]

Consider the following example of the Prophet Muḥammad (peace be upon him). The companion of the Prophet Muḥammad (peace be upon him), Anas ibn Mālik (May Allah be pleased with him) said:

كَانَ غُلَامٌ يَهُوْدِيٌّ يَخْدُمُ النَّبِيَّ صَلَّى اللهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ فَمَرِضَ فَأَتَاهُ النَّبِيُّ صَلَّى اللهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ يَعُوْدُهُ

 

Translation:

“There used to be a Jewish boy who served the Prophet [Muḥammad] (May Allah send salutations and peace upon him). When he fell ill, the Prophet [Muḥammad] (May Allah send salutations and peace upon him) went to visit him”[3]

This compassion of Islām was apparent amongst the companions of the Prophet Muḥammad (Peace be upon him). The companions of the Prophet Muḥammad (Peace be upon him) would give gifts to their non-Muslim family members.[4]

The companion of the Prophet (Peace be upon him), ‘Umar ibn Al Khattāb (may Allah be pleased with him) gifted a garment to his brother who was a non-Muslim.

The Muslim scholars have also stated that it is impermissible for a Muslim to insult[5] or harm[6] a non-Muslim.

In conclusion, it is important to distinguish between the pure principles of Islām and the incorrect attitude of some Muslims. Islām should be judged by its principles and not by the incorrect practices of some Muslims.

Why are most if not all Muslim-Majority countries dysfunctional and why do they have arbitrary wars with one another?

It is important to draw a distinction between a Muslim country and an Islāmic country. A Muslim-majority country does not imply it being an Islamic country albeit being a Muslim-majority country.

An Islamic country is based upon the principles of the Qurān and the Aḥādῑth (teachings of our beloved Prophet, Muḥammad, May peace and salutations be upon him). Allah is perfect and His is system is perfect. It is inconceivable that if a Muslim country is founded and governed by divine law which is efficiently administered, that it would be dysfunctional. The reality is that Muslim countries have been influenced by secularism due to which their systems have failed.

It is also incorrect to allude that non-Muslim countries are perfect. The divide amongst non-Muslim countries is exemplified during their elections.

Hence, the failure of the Muslim states is due to their digression from Islāmic values and their submission to a foreign system. This digression and submission are products of an inferiority complex.

In brief, your observation is correct. However, the cause of failure is the Muslims and not Islām. 

Why has the Qurān been ordered in the way that it has been ordered?

 

The chapters of the Qurān have been ordered according to an order prescribed by divine guidance.[7]

 

The chapters of the Qurān are not ordered according to when they were revealed. Hence, a single chapter may have been revealed earlier than another chapter yet it could be found later in the order of chapters set by divine revelation.

 

There are divine wonders behind the order of the chapters of the Qurān and a relationship between the chapters can be appreciated by looking further into the meanings and verses of each chapter.

 

The table below provides a brief glimpse at the profound connections between the chapters of the Qurān.[8]

 

Chapter of

Connection with previous chapter/Reasons for its placement

 

 

 

The Cow

The previous chapter explained the basics of submitting to Almighty Allah and asking for guidance from Him. This chapter details the principles of religion and elaborates upon the basics of the Islāmic creed that had been mentioned in the previous chapter. It also begins to briefly mention basic rulings of Sharῑ’ah such as divorce, dowry, business transactions, and other rulings.

 

The Family of Imran

This chapter elaborates further upon the previous chapter and provides more details upon the principles of the Islāmic creed and provides responses to those who lay accusations towards the principles of the Islāmic creed.

 

 

 

 

Women

Once the principles of the Islāmic creed have been mentioned, Almighty Allah begins to discuss in greater detail the basic Sharῑ’ah rulings that had been mentioned in the earlier chapters, such as the rulings pertaining to marriage, dowry, the noble war, migration, the rights of women, inheritance, orphans, oaths, borrowing, safekeeping, and other rulings. Also, the previous chapter ended with a command for the believers to fear Allah, this chapter begins by reiterating this command. In summary, this chapter expands and elaborates upon the themes of the chapters of The Cow and The Family of ‘Imrān.

 

 

 

 

 

 

The Table Spread

This chapter continues the trend of detailing Sharῑ’ah rulings by elaborating upon the rulings pertaining to food, prayer, corporal punishment, pilgrimage, bequests, and other rulings. This chapter also elaborates upon many of the discussions that had been briefly mentioned in the previous chapters, such as the sin of murder, the story of the nation of Moses, alcohol, and gambling.

Also, the previous chapter contained many ruling pertaining to transactions, thus this chapter begins by commanding the Muslims to fulfil these transactions diligently.

Much like the previous chapters, this chapter also briefly discusses the basics of the Islamic creed. The previous chapter began with a mention of the power of Almighty Allah, this chapter ends with a mention of the power of Almighty Allah. The previous chapter began with a mention of the start of creation, this chapter ends with a mention of resurrection.

 

 

 

 

The Cattle

At the end of the previous chapter, there was a brief mention that the sovereignty of the heavens and the earth belongs to Allah. This chapter elaborates on the meaning of this and demonstrates how Almighty Allah has created everything, and therefore he is the Lord of all things. Also, in the previous chapter, the believers had been warned not to prohibit those things which Almighty Allah has permitted. In this chapter, Almighty Allah discusses the disbelievers who prohibited that which Almighty Allah had permitted.

 

 

The Heights

This chapter elaborates upon the issue of the inception of creation, the past nations and those Prophet which had been discussed briefly in the previous chapter. This chapter also elaborates upon other issues that had been mentioned only briefly in the previous chapter, such as the mercy of Almighty Allah and the scales of justice on the Day of Judgement.

The Spoils of War

This chapter explains how the spoils of war shall be distributed and informs the believers that they shall be assisted in their war against the oppressors if they bear patience.

 

 

Repentance

The previous chapter contained a command for the Muslims to prepare for war against the oppressors. This chapter contains a motivation for all the believers to partake in the war against the oppressors. Also, in the previous chapter, Almighty Allah explained how the spoils of war shall be distributed. In this chapter, Almighty Allah explains how charity shall be distributed.

 

Jonah

The previous chapter briefly expounded upon the story of Pharaoh and briefly discussed how he was drowned by Almighty Allah. This chapter discusses the story of how he was drowned in greater detail.

 

Hud

In the previous chapter, there was a very brief mention of the story of Prophet Noah (May Allah’s blessings be upon him). In this chapter, the story of Prophet Noah (May Allah’s blessings be upon him) is discussed in greater detail.

 

 

 

 

Joseph

In the previous chapter, there was a mention that the stories of the various Prophets shall soon be discussed in order to strengthen the heart of the believers. This chapter begins by discussing the very best of the stories mentioned in the Quran in order to fulfil the promise that had been made in the previous chapter. Also, Prophet Jacob (May Allah’s blessings be upon him) had been discussed briefly in the previous chapter, this chapter discusses the story of Prophet Jacob (May Allah’s blessings be upon him) and his son, Prophet Joseph (May Allah’s blessings be upon him) in great detail.

 

The Thunder

At the end of the previous chapter, there was a mention regarding how man passes by the signs and wonders of Almighty Allah, yet does not heed a lesson. In this chapter, Almighty Allah begins to enumerate His signs and wonders.

 

 

 

Abraham

At the end of the previous chapter, there was a mention regarding the people who have knowledge of the book. This chapter begins by elaborating upon what is meant by the book and who is the being who has knowledge of the book. Also, there were four aspects that were briefly discussed in the previous chapter that have been further elaborated upon in this chapter; they are: the discussion on the Prophets (may Allah’s blessings be upon them), those who mocked them, the manner in which they mocked, and the punishment they received for mocking.

 

 

Al Hijr

The previous chapter ended with a description of the Day of Judgement, this chapter begins by describing the state of the wrongdoers after they have resided in hellfire for a period of time. It also discusses the being responsible for their misguidance; satan.

 

 

 

The Bee

This chapter is related to the chapter of Abraham. The chapter of Abraham discussed the trials that a deceased person shall be put through. This chapter elaborates upon these trials and mentions what will occur when these trials are over. Also, in the chapter of Abraham, Almighty Allah mentioned that if one were to count the bounties of his Lord, then one would not be able to do so. In this chapter, Almighty Allah mentions a few of these innumerable bounties.

 

 

The Children of Israel

In the previous chapter, there was a brief mention of a nation known as Ahl Al Sabt. In this chapter, there is a more detailed discussion on their story.

This chapter and the next four chapter begin a series of stories that will be told of the previous nations and their Prophets (May Allah’s blessings be upon them).

 

 

 

 

 

The Cave

The previous chapter began with a declaration that Almighty Allah is free from all defects. This chapter begins with a declaration that all praise is for Almighty Allah. Also, there was a mention in the previous chapter about how the Jews had asked the Prophet Muhammad three questions; regarding the soul, the people of the cave, and the King Dhul Qarnain. The previous chapter answered the first question, this chapter answers the latter two questions. Also, the previous chapter contained a verse that mentioned how mankind have been given very little knowledge in comparison to the knowledge of Almighty Allah. In this chapter, Almighty Allah demonstrates this with a story of the Prophet Moses (May Allah’s blessings be upon him).

 

Mary

The previous chapter contained three extraordinary stories. In this chapter, Almighty Allah continues this pattern by presenting two more extraordinary stories; the story of John the Baptist and the story of the virgin birth.

 

 

 

Ta Ha

In the previous chapter, the story of John the Baptist, Zacharia, and Jesus had been mentioned in detail, and the story of Moses had been mentioned briefly, whilst the story of Abraham’s relationship with his father had been mentioned in detail and the story of his relationship with his nation has been mentioned in brief. In this chapter, the story of Moses is mentioned in greater detail.

 

 

 

 

 

The Prophets

In the previous chapter, the story of Moses had been mentioned in great detail. Before that, the story of John the Baptist, Zacharia, and Jesus had been mentioned in great detail. In this chapter, the stories of Noah, Lot, David, Solomon, Job, Ezekiel, and Dhul Nun are discussed in detail. Also, the story of Abraham’s relationship with his nation is mentioned in detail and the story of his relationship with his father is mentioned in brief. Also, in the previous chapter, a verse was mentioned which indicated that the date for the Day of Judgement has been set. This chapter begins with a message that the date of the Day of Judgement will arrive soon.

 

The Pilgrimage

The previous chapter ended with a mention of the Day of Judgement, this chapter begins with a description of the Day of Judgement.

 

The Believers

The previous chapter ended with a command for the believers to perform righteous deed. This chapter begins by enumerating the righteous deeds that a believer must perform in order to succeed.

 

The Light

In the previous chapter, one of the righteous deeds that a believer had been advised to do was to protect his private parts from engaging in sin. In this chapter, Almighty Allah presents the rulings for those who disobey this advice.

 

 

The Criterion

In the previous chapter, there was a mention that all that is in the heavens and the earth belongs to Allah. In this chapter, Almighty Allah elaborates and enumerates what is referred to by this; thus he mentions the shade, the night, the sleep, the day, the wind, the sun, the moon, the stars, the water, the animals, mankind, the oceans, and other items.

 

 

The Poets

In the previous chapter, Almighty Allah had briefly mentioned the stories of a few Prophets. In this chapter, Allah the Almighty provides further details on the stories of the Prophets that had been briefly discussed in the previous chapter. The previous chapter ended with a description of the righteous people who refrain from frivolous actions, this chapter ends with a description of poets who do not refrain from frivolous actions.

 

The Ant

In the previous chapter, Almighty Allah mentioned the stories of a few Prophets. In this chapter, Almighty Allah discusses the stories of more Prophets as well as a brief discussion on the story of Prophet Moses (May Allah’s blessing be upon him).

 

The Story

In the previous two chapters, the story of Moses had been discussed in slight detail. In this chapter, Almighty Allah relates the entire story of Prophet Moses (May Allah’s blessing be upon him) with great detail.

 

 

 

The Spider

In the beginning of the previous chapter, there was a mention of the story of the pharaoh Ramesis II who oppressed the people of Moses, this chapter begins with a reminder to the Muslims who were being oppressed that the people of the past were also oppressed. Also, the previous chapter ended with a mention of the migration of the Prophet Muhammad (Peace be upon) and so this chapter also ends with an indication towards migration.

 

The Romans

The previous chapter ended with a note that those who strive in the path of Almighty Allah shall be guided, this chapter begins with the glad tidings that the Muslims shall soon rejoice due to the efforts they have made in the path of Almighty Allah.

Luqman

The previous chapter ended with a mention of the Quran, this chapter begins with a description of the Quran.

 

The Prostration

The ending of the previous chapter mentioned five things which are known only to Almighty Allah, this verse subtly commentates and elaborates upon how these five things are resigned to the knowledge of only Almighty Allah.

 

 

The Clans

The previous chapter ended with a command for the Prophet Muhammad (Peace be upon him) to ignore the insults of the disbelievers, this chapter continues in advising the Prophet Muhammad (Peace be upon him) to maintain God-consciousness and prohibits him from obeying the whims of the disbelievers.

 

Sheba

The previous chapter ended with a mention that Almighty Allah is the Most Merciful and Most Forgiving, this chapter begins with the same sentiments.

 

The Angels

The previous chapter began with a declaration that all praise is for Almighty Allah, this chapter begins with the same declaration.

 

 

 

 

 

Ya Sin

In the previous chapter there was a mention of how the disbelievers claimed that if an individual came with a warning from Almighty Allah, they would accept his statements. However, when the Prophet Muhammad (Peace be upon him) came to them with a warning from Almighty Allah, they broke their oath and denied his Prophethood. This chapter begins with a declaration of the Prophethood of Prophet Muhammad (Peace be upon him) to show that the denial of the disbelievers will not change the reality – which is that Prophet Muhammad (Peace be upon him) is indeed a Prophet. Also, the previous chapter mentioned the orbits of the sun and moon, this chapter elaborates upon these orbits.

Those who set the Ranks

The previous chapter mentioned the story of a nation who were destroyed, this chapter further elaborates upon this nation.

Saad

The previous chapter mentioned the stories of various Prophets, this chapter mentions the stories of more Prophets.

 

 

The Troops

The previous chapter ended with a mention of the Qur’an. This chapter begins with a mention of the Qur’an. Also, near the end of the previous chapter, Almighty Allah discussed the creation of Adam and Eve. In this chapter, He discusses their story in greater detail.

The Believer

 

 

 

 

These seven chapters all begin with the letter Ha Mim, each of them then immediately discuss the Qurān.

They are Expounded

Counsel

The Ornaments of Gold

The Smoke

The Kneeling

The Wind-Curved Sanhills

 

Muhammad

The previous chapter ended with a mention that only the wrongdoers would be destroyed. This ayah then begins to explain the laws and principles of warfare – which would be the cause of their destruction.

 

 

Victory

The previous chapter discusses warfare, this chapter gives the glad tidings that the Muslims standing with the Prophet Muhammad (Peace be upon him) shall soon be granted victory. It also clarifies some of the sentiments found in the chapter of The Wind-Curved Sandhills.

The Private Apartments

The previous chapters entailed the laws of warfare against the disbelievers, this chapter entails the laws of warfare against rebels.

 

 

Qāf

The previous chapter entailed a discussion on the mannerisms that a believer should display. This chapter also entails how Almighty Allah is aware of each human being’s actions. The chapter then discusses how these actions may lead to eternal damnation or eternal happiness.

The Winnowing Winds

The previous chapter contained a discussion on the Day of Judgement, this chapter begins with a promise that all that has been mentioned with regards to the Day of Judgement will indeed occur.

 

 

The Mount

The previous chapter entailed a discussion on the rewards that shall be given to the God-fearing, this chapter continues this discussion. The previous chapter ended with a mention of the punishment of the disbelievers, this chapter also ends with a mention of the punishment of the disbelievers.

 

The Star

The previous chapter ended with the word ‘stars’ and this chapter begins with the word ‘stars’. Also, in the previous chapter there was a discussion on the children of the believers. This chapter discusses the children of the disbelievers.

The Moon

The previous chapter discussed the stories of the past nations that were destroyed. This chapter continues this discussion.

 

 

The All-Merciful

The previous chapter ended with Almighty Allah briefly mentioning that on the Day of Judgement, some will enter paradise whilst others shall enter hellfire. In this chapter, Almighty Allah elaborates upon the state of the occupants of paradise and the state of the occupants of hellfire.

 

The Event

This chapter continues the discussion on the state of the occupants of paradise and the state of the occupants of hellfire and the differing experiences of the two parties.

 

Iron

The previous chapter ended with a command to declare that Almighty Allah is free from all faults. This chapter begins with a declaration that the heavens and the earth testify that Almighty Allah is free from all faults.

 

 

She that Disputes

The previous chapter began with an explanation that Almighty Allah’s knowledge is such that He knows all that is apparent and all that is hidden. This chapter begins by mentioning that Almighty Allah has also heard the dispute raised by a woman who complained to Prophet Muhammad (Peace be upon him) of her situation with her husband to demonstrate the sentiments of the previous chapter.

 

Exile

The ending of the previous chapter contained verses that were revealed with regards to the Battle of Badr, this chapter begins with verses regarding the Battle of Banu Nadir which took place after the Battle of Badr.

She who is to be Tested

In the previous chapter, there was a discussion of a treaty that occurred with the people of the book. In this chapter, there is a discussion of a treaty that occurred with the polytheists.

The Ranks

In the previous chapter, there was a brief mention of taking part in a noble war, this chapter elaborates upon this.

 

 

The Congregation

In the previous chapter, there was a mention of how taking part in the noble war is the best of trades. In this chapter, Almighty Allah discusses the laws of the Friday prayer and that it is more virtuous than actual trade. Also, the previous chapter discussed the ranks of people during noble war. This chapter discusses the ranks of people during Friday prayers.

 

The Hypocrites

In the previous chapter, Almighty Allah discussed the sincere believers. In this chapter, Almighty Allah discusses the insincere believers.

 

 

 

Mutual Disillusion

At the end of the previous chapter, there was a command for the believers to spend in charity before the time of their death arrives. Otherwise, the inheritors will inherit their wealth and will gain reward by giving the wealth to charity. In this way, one will be considered to have been disillusioned by his wealth. Also, the previous chapter advised the believers to ensure that they do not allow their family to take them away from the remembrance of Almighty Allah. This chapter explains the reasoning behind such an advice, which is that the family are a test from Almighty Allah.

Divorce

The previous chapter ended with a mention that one’s wife and children are a test. This chapter begins to detail family laws.

 

 

Banning

This chapter is also pertaining to an incident that involved the family of the Prophet Muhammad (Peace be upon him). Also, the previous chapter involved a discussion on giving divorce to a woman; a divorce is usually given due to negligence on the side of the husband or wife. In this chapter, Almighty Allah advises women to follow the examples of two great women; Asiyah and Mary.

 

The Sovereignty

In the chapter of Divorce, there was a mention of the creation of the heavens and the earth. In this chapter, Almighty Allah expounds upon the creation of the heavens and the earth.

 

 

The Pen

At the end of the previous chapter, Almighty Allah warned that He could take away the water source of mankind. In this chapter, Almighty Allah demonstrates how He had removed the vegetation from the gardens of a previous nation, thus it is even easier for Him to remove a nation’s water source.

 

The Reality

In the previous chapter, there was a brief mention of the Day of Judgement, this chapter provides another detailed account of the Day of Judgement.

The Ascending Stairways

This chapter continues the discussion on the Day of Judgement.

 

Noah

The previous chapter ended with Almighty Allah warning the readers that He is capable of destroying and replacing a nation. In this chapter, Almighty Allah gives an example of how He did this with the nation of the Prophet Noah (May Allah’s blessings be upon him)

 

The Jinn

In the previous chapter, there was a mention of how the Prophet Noah (May Allah’s blessings be upon him) advised his nation to repent. In this chapter, Almighty Allah tells the story of a group of Jinn (demon-like creatures) who repented.

 

The Enshrouded One

The previous chapter mentioned that the servants of Allah stand in worship of Allah, this chapter advises the reader to also stand in worship of Almighty Allah.

 

The Cloaked One

The previous chapter began with an address to the Prophet Muhammad (Peace be upon him), this chapter also begins with an address to the Prophet Muhammad (Peace be upon him).

 

The Rising of the Dead

In the previous chapter, there was a mention that the dwellers of Hellfire denied the Day of Judgement, this chapter provides evidences for the coming of the Day of Judgement and details the events that will occur on that day as proofs against their rejection.

 

 

Man

The previous chapter ended with a discussion on how man was created, this chapter begins by continuing this discussion. Also, in the previous chapter, there was a mention of the dwellers of paradise and how their faces shall be bright on the Day of Judgement, this chapter further elaborates upon their state on the Day of Resurrection and in paradise.

 

The Emissaries

The previous chapter ended with the Almighty Allah promising us that He has prepared a grave punishment for the oppressors, this chapter begins by Almighty Allah emphasising upon this promise.

 

 

The Tidings

The previous chapter contained numerous verses beginning with Almighty Allah asking “Did we not…?” This chapter also contains many verses beginning with the same rhetorical question. Also, the theme of this chapter and the three chapters that have preceded it is the Day of Judgement.

 

Those who Drag

The beginning of this chapter continues the discussion on the Day of Judgement. This chapter also maintains the theme of the Day of Judgement.

 

He Frowned

In the previous chapter, a verse was mentioned which contained a name used to describe the Day of Judgement – Al Tāmmah, this chapter also contains a different name used to describe the Day of Judgement - Al Sākhah - and provides an account of the state of mankind on that day.

The Overthrowing

The previous chapter ended with a mention of the Day of Judgement, this verse begins by describing the atmosphere on the Day of Judgement.

The Cleaving

This chapter further elaborates upon the atmosphere on the Day of Judgement.

 

Defrauding

The previous two chapters discussed the atmosphere during the initial stages of the Day of Judgement. This chapter begins to elaborate upon the events that will occur after resurrection.

 

The Sundering

The previous chapter discussed what will happen after resurrection, this chapter continues this sequence and begins the discussion on the scales of justice that will be bought for reckoning.

The Mansions of the Stars

The previous chapter began with a mention of the heavens, these two chapters also begin with a mention of the heavens.

The Night Comer

 

The Most High

The previous two chapters mentioned the growth of plants and the inception creation, this chapter discusses these two aspects in further detail.

The Overwhelming Event

The ending of the previous chapter indicated towards heaven and hell, this chapter discusses these two abodes in further detail.

 

The Dawn

The ending of the previous chapter held a warning from Almighty Allah that He shall resurrect and judge mankind and jinn, this chapter begins with an oath that such an event will occur.

 

The City

The previous chapter rebuked the one who loves his wealth and does not give to the poor, this chapter details what a wealthy person is advised to do with his wealth.

The Sun

The chapter of the Sun is related to the chapter of The Dawn. However, near the end of the chapter of the City, Almighty Allah mentioned that on the Day of Judgement, there shall be people on the right and the people on the left. In the chapter of the Sun, Almighty Allah elaborates upon what is meant by this. The chapter of The Night further elaborates upon the explanation provided in the chapter of The Sun. The chapter of The Night contains a discussion on the individual who is miserly, thus it is appropriately titled The Night which is an indication to darkness, whilst the chapter of The Morning Brightness contains a discussion on the Prophet Muhammad (Peace be upon him), thus it is appropriately titled The Morning Brightness which is an indication to light.

The Night

 

 

 

 

The Morning Brightness

 

The Expanding

The previous chapter involved a discussion of the various favours Almighty Allah has bestowed upon the Prophet Muhammad (Peace be upon him), this chapter continues this discussion.

 

The Fig

In the chapter of The Sun, there was a mention of the creation of mankind, this chapter elaborates upon form in which man has been created.

 

The Clot

In the previous chapter, there was a mention of how Almighty Allah has created mankind in the best of forms. In this verse, Almighty Allah elaborates upon how He created mankind and the other bounties he has bestowed upon mankind.

Power

The previous chapter mentioned the recitation of the Qur’an, this chapter discusses the revelation of the Qur’an

 

The Clear Proof

The previous chapter mentioned the revelation of the Qur’an, this chapter elaborates upon the reasoning behind the revelation and how the revelation served as a form of evidence against those who did not believe.

 

The Earthquake

The ending of the previous chapter mentioned how the disbelievers shall enter the Hellfire, this chapter elaborates upon when this event will occur; the Day of Judgement.

The Coursers

This chapter continues to detail the Day of Judgement.

 

The Striking Event

The previous chapter mentioned that the people shall be raised from their graves on the Day of Resurrection, this chapter details what shall cause them to rise from their graves, and then continues to elaborate upon the Day of Resurrection.

Rivalry for Worldly Increase

The previous chapter mentioned that some will enter Hellfire on the Day of Resurrection, this chapter elaborates upon the reasons why some will enter Hellfire.

The Late Afternoon

These two chapters continue to elaborate upon the reasons why some will enter Hellfire.

The Backbiter

 

The Elephant

The previous chapter mentioned how some inhabitants of Hellfire were ones who hoarded their wealth, this chapter involves a story which shows how wealth and power serve no resistance or benefit to Almighty Allah.

 

 

Winter

The previous chapter involved a story of a nation whose wealth did not benefit them, this chapter is an invitation to Islām for the polytheists of the time who greatly valued the vast wealth that they possessed. It also reminds them that their wealth and sustenance has been provided by Almighty Allah Himself.

 

 

Small Kindnesses

The previous chapter mentioned that Almighty Allah is the one who provides sustenance, this chapter rebukes the one who does not feed this sustenance to the poor. Also, the previous chapter contained a command for one to worship Allah, this chapter rebukes the one who does not pray his five daily prayers.

 

The Day Break

The previous chapter described how the hypocrites pray their five daily prayers with ulterior motives and do not give to charity, this chapter commands one to pray solely for Almighty Allah and to give to charity.

 

The Disbelievers

The previous chapter mentioned how the five daily prayers should only be offered for Almighty Allah, this chapter commands the believer to inform the disbelievers that his Lord is not the same as their Lord.

 

Victory

The previous chapter ended with the word ‘religion’, this chapter brings the glad tidings that the religion of Islām has been perfected and that will people will begin to enter the fold of Islām.

 

Palm Fibre

The previous chapter mentioned how the religion of Islām has been perfected and has been given victory. This chapter details the consequences of the polytheists who sought to defeat Islām.

 

The Unity

This chapter is related to the chapter of the Disbelievers wherein the disbelievers were told that their Lord is not the Lord of the believer. This chapter introduces the Lord of the believers – Almighty Allah.

The Daybreak

The previous chapter gave a concise description of Almighty Allah. This chapter explains that one should seek refuge in Almighty Allah from evil.

Mankind

This chapter further elaborates upon how one should seek refuge in Almighty Allah from evil.

 

Beyond the connection that exists between the chapters of the Qur’an, there are also connections between the verses found in these chapters.

And Allah Ta’āla Knows Best

Mu’ādh Chati

Student Darul Iftaa
Blackburn, England, UK

Checked and Approved by,
Mufti Ebrahim Desai.



[1] والمشهور عن كثير من المفسرين كما ذكره محمد بن إسحاق وغيره ورواه العوفي عن ابن عباس أن هذه الآيات نزلت فيمن آمن من أحبار أهل الكتاب كعبد الله بن سلام وأسد بن عبيد وثعلبة بن سعية وأسيد بن سعية وغيرهم أي لا يستوي من تقدم ذكرهم بالذم من أهل الكتاب وهؤلاء الذين أسلموا ولهذا قال تعالى {ليسوا سواء} أي ليسوا كلهم على حد سواء بل منهم المؤمن ومنهم المجرم ولهذا قال تعالى {من أهل الكتاب أمة قائمة} أي قائمة بأمر الله،مطيعة لشرعه متبعة نبي الله فهي {قائمة} يعني مستقيمة {يتلون آيات الله آناء الليل وهم يسجدون} أي يقومون الليل ويكثرون التهجد ويتلون القرآن في صلواتهم

تفسير ابن كثير (406-407/2) دار ابن الجوزي

 

 [2]لا بأس بعيادة اليهود والنصارى

الجامع الصغير للإمام محمد ت189ه (234) دار ابن حزم

 

ولا بأس بعيادة أهل الذمة

كتاب جمل الأحكام للناطفي ت (292) مكتبة نزار مصطفى الباز

 

من فتاوى البقالي... وعن أبي يوسف لا بأس بالدعاء لليهودي بما يصلحه في الدنيا ويكره مصافحته والبداية بالسلام له ولا بأس بالرد عليه إذا بدأ بالسلام وكذا في الفاسق المعلن- عن بعض أصحابنا ولا بأس بضيافته ذميا لقراءة أوحاجة أو بكتابة ولا ينبغي أن يقول للذمي يا كافر

خزانة الأكمل للجرجاني ت522ه (476-477/4) دار الكتب العلمية

 

(ولا بأس بعيادة الذمي) لأنه نوع بر في حقهم والنبي عليه الصلاة والسلام عاد يهوديا مرض في جواره قال الله تعالى لا ينهاكم الله عن الذين لم يقاتلوكم في الدين ولم يخرجوكم من دياركم أن تبروهم

هدية الصعلوك لمحرم بن محمد الزيلعي القسطموني ت بعد 1010ه (232) مخطوط – Princeton University Manuscripts

 

ولا بأس بعيادة اليهود والنصارى إذا كانوا في جواره لأنه نوع بر في حقهم فيجوز

مختارات النوازل للمرغيناني ت593ه(406) مكتبة الإرشاد

 

لا بأس برد السلام على أهل الذمة ولا يزيد في جوابه عليكم فإن كان له حاجة فلا بأس بالسلام عليهم

مختارات النوازل للمرغيناني ت593ه (409) مكتبة الإرشاد

 

ولا بأس بالذهاب إلى ضيافة أهل الذمة

خلاصة الفتاوى لطاهر البخاري ت بعد 600ه (346/4) مكتبة رشيدية

 

ولا بأس بالذهاب إلى ضيافة أهل الذمة لأنه نوع بر

المحيط البرهاني لبرهان الدين البخاري ت616ه (70/8) إدارة القرآن

 

ولا بأس بأن يصل الرجل المسلم المشرك قريبا كان أو بعيدا محاربا كان أو ذميا

المحيط البرهاني لبرهان الدين البخاري ت616ه (70/8) إدارة القرآن

 

وتحل إجابة دعوة الذمي والبر في حقه

الحاوي القدسي للغزنوي ت593ه (326/2) دار النوادر

 

أقول الحديثان مشتملان على العيادة والتبليغ ولذا اختلف العلماء فقال بعضهم المقصود هو العيادة والتبليغ تابع فقال بجواز عيادة اليهودي والنصراني وقال بعضهم المقصود هو التبليغ والعيادة تابع فقال بجواز عيادة اليهودي والنصراني وقال بعضهم المقصود هو التبليغ والعيادة تابع فقال بعدم جواز مجر العيادة وقال الله تعالى "لا ينهاكم الله عن الذين لم يقاتلوكم في الدين ولم يخرجوكم من دياركم أن تبروهم وتقسطوا إليهم" ولا يخفى أن العيادة نوع من أنواع البر فينبغي أن تجوز وهو مذهبنا والله أعلم

إعلاء السنن لمفتي ظفر أحمد عثماني (454-455/17) إدارة القرآن

 

[3] صحيح البخاري لمحمد بن إسماعيل البخاري ت256ه (252/3) – نسخة "فتح الباري" – دار الحديث

 

[4] حدثنا خالد بن مخلد، حدثنا سليمان بن بلال قال حدثني عبد الله بن دينار عن ابن عمر رضي الله عنهما قال رأى عمر حلة على رجل تباع فقال للنبي صلى الله عليه وسلم: ابتع هذه الحلة تلبسها يوم الجمعة وإذا جاءك الوفد؟ فقال "إنما يلبس هذا من لا خلاق له في الآخرة»، فأتي رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم منها بحلل فأرسل إلى عمر منها بحلة فقال عمر كيف ألبسها وقد قلت فيها ما قلت؟ قال "إني لم أكسكها لتلبسها تبيعها أو تكسوها" فأرسل بها عمر إلى أخ له من أهل مكة قبل أن يسلم

صحيح البخاري لمحمد بن إسماعيل البخاري ت256ه (466/10) – نسخة "فتح الباري" – دار الحديث

 

[5] من فتاوى البقالي... وعن أبي يوسف لا بأس بالدعاء لليهودي بما يصلحه في الدنيا ويكره مصافحته والبداية بالسلام له ولا بأس بالرد عليه إذا بدأ بالسلام وكذا في الفاسق المعلن- عن بعض أصحابنا ولا بأس بضيافته ذميا لقراءة أوحاجة أو بكتابة ولا ينبغي أن يقول للذمي يا كافر

خزانة الأكمل للجرجاني ت522ه (476-477/4) دار الكتب العلمية

 

[6] الظلم على الذمي أشد من الظلم على المسلم لأنه من أهل النار فلا يرجى منه العفو ولهذا قالوا إذا دخل المسلم دار الحرب تاجرا بأمان لا ينبغي أن يغدر بهم لأن الغدر حرام فإن غدر بهم وأخذ منهم يصير ملكا محظورا لورود الإستيلاء على مال مباح إلا أنه حصل بسبب الغدر فيوجب خبثا فيؤمر بالتصدق....مال الحربي مباح في دار الحرب إذا أخذه المسلم بغير غدر فهو له حلال

مختارات النوازل للمرغيناني ت593ه (416) مكتبة الإرشاد

 

[7] والخلاف يرجع إلى اللفظ لأن القائل بالثاني يقول إنه رمز إليهم بذلك لعلمهم بأسباب نزوله ومواقع كلماته ولهذا قال الإمام مالك إنما ألفوا القرآن على ما كانوا يسمعونه من النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم مع قوله بأن ترتيب السور اجتهاد منهم فآل الخلاف إلى أنه هل ذلك يتوقيف قول أم بمجرد استناد فعل؟

البرهان في علوم القرآن للزركشي ت794ه (181) دار الحديث

 

وفي حديث أوس المذكور دلالة على أن ترتيب السور كما هو في المصاحف توفيقي لأن الصحابة رتبوا القرآن على هذا الترتيب في زمن النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم والظاهر أنه لم يكن إلا بتعليمه أو بإطلاع منه صلى الله عليه وسلم وأقرهم الله سبحانه وتعالى عليه

إعلاء السنن لمفتي ظفر أحمد عثماني (38/4) إدارة القرآن

 

وقد اتفق جماهير العلماء على أن ترتيب كل سور القرآن توقيفي وليس ذلك بتصرف اجتهادي بحت من الصحابة

جمع القرآن الكريم وتوثيقه في عهد النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم للدكتور نور الدين عتر (35) دار الغوثاني

 

وذهب جماعة إلى الأول منهم القاضي أبو بكر في أحد قوليه وخلائق قال أبو بكر بن الأنباري "أنزل الله القرآن كله إلى سماء الدنيا ثم فرقه في بضع وعشرين سنة فكانت السورة تنزل لأمر ينزل والآية جوابا لمستخبر ويوقف جبريل النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم على موضع الآية والسورة فاتساق السور كاتساق الآيات والحروف كله عن النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم فمن قدم سورة أو أخرها فقد أفسد نظم القرآن" وقال الكرماني في البرهان: "ترتيب السور هكذا هو عند الله تعالى في اللوح المحفوظ على هذا الترتيب وكان يعرض النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم على جبريل ما اجتمع لديه منه وعرضه صلى الله عليه وسلم في السنة التي توفي فيها مرتين وكذلك قال الطيبي

أسرار ترتيب القرآن للسيوطي ت911ه (42) دار الفضيلة

 

Note: there is a difference of opinion in this issue. The upshot is that all the chapters are ordered through divine revelation, however, the difference of opinion lies over whether this divine revelation was explicitly mentioned by the Prophet Sallallahu Alayhi Wasallam or simply indicated towards via recitation.

 

Nonetheless, Imam Al Bayhaqi, ‘Allamah Suyuti, and Muhammad Al Zurqani hold the view that some chapters were ordered according to divine revelation, whilst others were not.

 

[8] أسرار ترتيب القرآن للسيوطي ت911ه (53-180) دار الفضيلة

 

 

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