Category: Food and Nourishment
Fatwa#: 36484
Asked Country: Australia

Answered Date: Feb 11,2017

Title: Does istihaalah take place in emulsifies made from Haraam Animals?

Question

Assalamulaikum,

My question is regarding the permisibility of emulsifiers in food products accodrding to Hanafi fiqh. I am from Sydney, Australia and I have recently done a "food fiqh" course where I was taught that the production of emulsifiers undergoes the process of istihala (due to a changes in the chemical composition, nature and characteristic of the original ingredients) and as such emulsifiers that are made from non-halal slaughtered animal fats and porcine fat is considered to be halal. I find this ruling regarding emulsifiers doubtful to accept so I would like to know what the fatwa regarding this issue truly is. I understand the chemistry behind the manufacturing of emulsifiers because I have studied chemistry in university and it is very similar to soapmaking. From a chemistry perspective, it is true that a chemical change at the molecular level is happening, however, does this "istihala" make the final product halal and tahir, especially when the original ingredient is of porcine origin? I would greatly appreciate an explanation to alleviate my doubts. 

Jazakallahukhairan.

Answer

In the Name of Allah, the Most Gracious, the Most Merciful.

As-salāmu ‘alaykum wa-rahmatullāhi wa-barakātuh.

According to Shari’ah, washing, burning, drying, rubbing, scratching are all forms of removing and cleansing impurity.[1]

Shariah has also regarded istihaalah – complete and absolute change – as a method of cleansing.[2]

There are a few examples mentioned in the books of the Fuqaha;

1)    The permissibility of consuming salt originally produced from a donkey or pig falling in a salt mine.

2)    The permissibility of consuming vinegar transformed from wine.

The great Hanafi jurist, Allamah ibn Abideen (رحمه الله) states in his famous commentary of Radd Al-Muhtar on Al-Durr Al-Mukhtar,

(قوله والحرق كالغسل) لأن النار تأكل ما فيه من النجاسة حتى لا يبقى فيه شيء، أو تحيله فيصير الدم رمادا فيطهر بالاستحالة، ولهذا لو أحرقت العذرة وصارت رمادا طهرت للاستحالة، كالخمر إذا تخللت، وكالخنزير إذا وقع في المملحة وصار ملحا.

Commentary on the statement of Al-Durr Al-Mukhtar “Burning is like washing (in terms of cleansing)”

This is due to the fact that the fire consumes the impurities until no impurity remains or completely transforms the item for instance blood will be turned to ashes therefore it will become pure with a complete transformation (metamorphosis).

Therefore, if the droppings of an animal are burned and they turn into ash, they will be considered pure because of the transformation.

Other examples (of transformations making something pure) are wine when in turns into vinegar or when a pig falls into a salt pit and turn into salt.[3]

In general, and without reference to any product, if there is a complete change as explained above, then only will it be halal. [4]

We also wish to inform that the change should not be mere rearrangement of the structure. The structure must change from one form to another.[5]

For example, refer to the two diagrams below.[6]

And Allah Ta’āla Knows Best

Saad Haque

Student Darul Iftaa
New Jersey, USA 

Checked and Approved by,
Mufti Ebrahim Desai.



[1] البحر الرائق شرح كنز الدقائق ومنحة الخالق وتكملة الطوري جلد١ ص٢٢٧ – ايچ ايم سعيد

ثم اعلم أنه قد ظهر إلى هنا أن التطهير يكون بأربعة أمور بالغسل والدلك والجفاف والمسح في الصقيل دون ماء والفرك يدخل في الدلك والخامس مسح المحاجم بالماء بالخرق كما قدمناه والسادس النار كما قدمناه في الأرض إذا احترقت بالنار والسابع انقلاب العين، فإن كان في الخمر فلا خلاف في الطهارة، وإن كان في غيره كالخنزير والميتة تقع في المملحة فتصير ملحا يؤكل

[2] مجمع الأنهر في شرح ملتقى الأبحر (1/ 61)

(و) يطهر (نحو الروث والعذرة بالحرق حتى يصير رمادا عند محمد هو المختار) وعليه الفتوى؛ لأن الشرع رتب وصف النجاسة على تلك الحقيقة، وتنتفي الحقيقة بانتفاء بعض أجزاء مفهومها فكيف بالكل ألا يرى أن العصير الطاهر إذا صار خمرا يتنجس وإذا صار خلا يطهر اتفاقا فعرفنا أن استحالة العين يستتبعه زوال الوصف المرتب عليها، وعلى هذا يحكم بطهارة صابون صنع من زيت نجس (خلافا لأبي يوسف) ؛ لأن أجزاء ذلك النجس باقية من وجه.

(وكذا يطهر حمار وقع في المملحة فصار ملحا) لانقلاب العين، وهو من المطهرات فإن كان من الخمر فلا خلاف في الطهارة، وإن كان من غيرها كالخنزير يطهر عند محمد خلافا لأبي يوسف،.

[3] الدر المختار وحاشية ابن عابدين (رد المحتار) (6/ 735)

[4] فقه العبادات - حنفي (ص: 67)

الاستحالة: كالخمر تطهر إذا تخللت والميتة إذا صارت ملحا والروث إذا صار رمادا والزيت إذا تنجس فصنع صابونا طهر . وبالاستحالة يصبح المسك طاهرا طيبا وهو في الأصل دم الغزال يستحيل طيبا فيصبح طاهرا عن أبي سعيد الخدري رضي الله عنه قال : قال رسول الله صلى الله عليه و سلم : ( أطيب الطيب المسك ). كما يطهر العنبر والزباد وهو وسخ يجتمع تحت ذنب السنور ) بالاستحالة أيضا .

مراقي الفلاح شرح نور الإيضاح (ص: 67)

 والاستحالة تطهر الأعيان النجسة كالميتة إذا صارت ملحا والعذرة ترابا أو رمادا كما سنذكره

[5] If a product (A) has been structured as 1, 2, 3 and has been rearranged to 3, 2, 1, then it will not be halal.

 

However, if it has been transformed to 4, 5, 6 (as in the case of product B) through one of the methods of cleansing accepted by Shari’ah, then it will be halal.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

[6]                                                       A                                                          B

 

DISCLAIMER - AskImam.org questions
AskImam.org answers issues pertaining to Shar'ah. Thereafter, these questions and answers are placed for public view on www.askimam.org for educational purposes. However, many of these answers are unique to a particular scenario and cannot be taken as a basis to establish a ruling in another situation or another environment. Askimam.org bears no responsibility with regards to these questions being used out of their intended context.
  • The Shar's ruling herein given is based specifically on the question posed and should be read in conjunction with the question.
  • AskImam.org bears no responsibility to any party who may or may not act on this answer and is being hereby exempted from loss or damage howsoever caused.
  • This answer may not be used as evidence in any Court of Law without prior written consent of AskImam.org.
  • Any or all links provided in our emails, answers and articles are restricted to the specific material being cited. Such referencing should not be taken as an endorsement of other contents of that website.