Fatwa: # 32694
Category: Jurisprudence and Rulings...
Country: Canada
Date: 10th April 2015

Title

Qada and fidya

Question

. I practice Shafii madhab. Several years before I accepted Islam I didn't know Islam at all - even didn't know Kalima, my mother is non-Muslim, father is not practicing Muslim. Now I make kadha of the missed salat. And concerning missed Sawm in Ramadhan I heard that according to our madhab besides making up missed days of fasting I have to feed poor people. If sometimes we feed guests, can I do niyah, if it's me who prepare meal, to feed them for my missed Sawm? And whom can we regard as this category of people? Especially:

- my husband and his companions who have no their own house (most of us has no financial opportunity to buy apartment, but we have no lack of meal and clothes to wear except some rare cases);

- when we feed jamaats which come for the sake of Deen.

 

And what's the similar rule for Hanafi school? (For my sister)

 

2. If I want to get rid of some paper which have the name of Allah on them and some religious texts - what is the permissible way to get rid of them? What's the rule according:

- ayats in Arabic,

- hadeeth in Arabic,

- name of Allah in Arabic,

- name of Allah in other languages.

 

3. In the book of Shafii school I read that no matter of religion I can not to cover my awraat full in front of my mahraams. I have an uncle who is non-Muslim - is it permissible for me to wear not full hijaab in front of him? (For example not full sleeve or not full head-scarf when part of my neck is uncovered).

Answer

In the Name of Allah, the Most Gracious, the Most Merciful.

As-salāmu ‘alaykum wa-rahmatullāhi wa-barakātuh.

1. According to the Shafii mazhab, if a person didn`t make qada before the  next Ramadan[1],  fidya of one mudd[2] for each missed day should be given to poor people (fuqara wa masakin) who are entitled to zakat[3].

 But if a person had an excuse to miss fasts and he didn`t make up them till the  next Ramadan for the same reason or he forgot about it or was ignorant about it, it is not obligatory to pay fidiya[4]. So in your situation you are not bound to pay fidya.

According to the Hanafi mazhab it is not compulsory to pay  fidya for delaying Qada till  the next Ramadan.[5]

2. It will be permissible to burn or bury such papers.[6]

3. It will be permissible not to wear full hijab in front of your mahrams even if they are not muslims.[7]

Abu Ali ad-Dagistani

Student Darul Iftaa
Moscow, Russia

Checked and Approved by,
Mufti Ebrahim Desai.

www.daruliftaa.net



[1] قال في مغني المحتاج: و من أخّر قضاء رمضان أو شيئاً منه مع إمكانه بأن لم يكن به عذر من سفر أو غيره حتى دخل رمضان اخر لزمه مع القضاء لكل يوم مد  ج2 ص 210

[2] الموازين و المكاييل و الأطوال من ملحق المنهج القويم ص 651

[3] قال في المنهج القويم: و يجب مع القضاء الفدية  و هي مد و جنسه جنس الفطرة جنساً و نوعاًو صفةً فيجب من غالب قوت البلد في غالب السنة و يصرف إلى واحد من الفقراء و المسكين دون غيرهما من مستحقي الزكاة ص 415

[4] قال في المنهج القويم: أما إذا أخّره بعذر كأن استمرّ مريضاً أو مسافراً أو امرأة حاملاً أو مرضعاً إلى قابلٍ أو أخّر ذلك جهلاً أو نسياناً أو إكراهاً فلا شيء علي بالتأخير ما دام العذر باقياً و إن استمرّ سنين لأنّ ذلك جائز في الأداء بالعذر ففي القضاء به أولى ص 418

[5] مراقي الفلاح : و لا فدية بالتأخير إليه لإطلاق النص ج 2 ص 357

[6] قال في إعانة الطالبين: (قوله: ويكره حرق ما كتب عليه) أي ما كتب القرآن عليه، وعبارة المغني: ويكره إحراق خشب نقش بالقرآن إلا إن قصد به صيانة القرآن فلا يكره. 1/ 85

 

قال في التحفة: وَيُكْرَهُ حَرْقُ مَا كُتِبَ عَلَيْهِ إلَّا لِغَرَضِ نَحْوِ صِيَانَةٍ وَمِنْهُ تَحْرِيقُ  وقال في  حاشية الشرواني على التحفة :  اسْمُ مُعَظَّمٍ كَأَسْمَاءِ الْأَنْبِيَاءِ حَيْثُ دَلَّتْ قَرِينَةٌ عَلَى إرَادَتِهِمْ عِنْدَ الِاشْتِرَاكِ فِيهِ اهـ

[7] قال في تحفة المحتاج: (وَلَا يَنْظُرُ مِنْ مَحْرَمِهِ) بِنَسَبٍ أَوْ رَضَاعٍ أَوْ مُصَاهَرَةٍ (بَيْنَ) فِيهِ تَجَوُّزٌ أَوْضَحَهُ قَوْلُهُ الْآتِي إلَّا مَا بَيْنَ (السُّرَّةِ وَرُكْبَةٍ) ؛ لِأَنَّهُ عَوْرَةٌ فَيَحْرُمُ نَظَرُ ذَلِكَ إجْمَاعًا (وَيَحِلُّ) نَظَرُ (مَا سِوَاهُ) حَيْثُ لَا شَهْوَةَ وَلَوْ كَافِرًا؛ لِأَنَّ الْمَحْرَمِيَّةَ تُحَرِّمُ الْمُنَاكَحَةَ فَكَانَا كَرَجُلَيْنِ وَامْرَأَتَيْنِ،

 

قال في مغني المحتاج: تَنْبِيهٌ قَدْ عُلِمَ مِنْ كَلَامِهِ أَنَّ نَظَرَهُ إلَى مَا يَبْدُو فِي حَالِ الْمَهْنَةِ جَائِزٌ قَطْعًا، وَإِلَى مَا بَيْنَ السُّرَّةِ وَالرُّكْبَةِ حَرَامٌ قَطْعًا، وَالْخِلَافُ فِيمَا بَيْنَ ذَلِكَ وَلَا فَرْقَ فِي الْمَحْرَمِ بَيْنَ الْكَافِرِ وَغَيْرِهِ

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