Fatwa: # 27970
Category: Jurisprudence and Rulings...
Country: Netherlands
Date: 5th January 2014


What are the rulings pertaining to a child born outside wedlock?


I am a Muslim girl and have been dating a Muslim boy for three years. We have been committing Zina and I fell pregnant in August this year. He refused to get married as it is now quite obvious he was just using me for a good time and we have since then split up and I have continued with the pregnancy. I just wanted to know once the boy is born, whose surname will he take? I know Islamically a child has to take his father`s surname, but in this case out of wedlock what will happen?

Also is it true that a boy born out of wedlock cannot be Imam nor inherit from his father?


In the Name of Allah, the Most Gracious, the Most Merciful.

As-salāmu ‘alaykum wa-rahmatullāhi wa-barakātuh.

We are sad to learn of your pain and grief. However, this personal experience will make clear to you the rationale behind the prohibition of pre-marital relationships. Sharia wishes to safeguard the dignity and honour of women from being merely used as a physical object for one`s passion and desires. Make tawbah to Allah and seek forgiveness. Allah is Most-Forgiving and Most-Merciful.

Principally, a child born out of wedlock is illegitimate and cannot be attributed to the biological father[1]. The child will not carry the name of the biological father but will adopt the surname of the mother[2].

Consequetly, the laws of inheritance will not apply between them too[3]. If the biological father dies, the illegitimate child will not inherit from his father and vice versa. 

It is permissible for a child born out of wedlock to be an Imam.[4]

And Allah Ta’āla Knows Best

Hanif Yusuf Patel

Student Darul Iftaa

Checked and Approved by,
Mufti Ebrahim Desai.

[1] فقال رسول الله - صلى الله عليه وسلم - : لا دعوة في الإسلام ، ذهب أمر الجاهلية ، الولد للفراش ، وللعاهر الحجر

[Mishkat al-Masabih, 2: 287-8, Qadimi Kutub Khana; Sunan Abi Dawud, 1: 317, Maktabah Imdadiyah Multan]

[Sahih al-Bukhari, 2: 1065, Qadimi Kutub Khana]

 إذ لو كان زنا لزمه العقر ولم يثبت النسب

[Radd al-Muhtar ala Ad-Durr al-Mukhtar, 3: 180, H.M. Saeed Company]

الواطئ (إن ادعى النسب يثبت في الأولى) شبهة المحل (لا في الثانية) أي شبهة الفعل لتمحضه زنا

[Ad-Durr al-Mukhtar ma`a Radd al-Muhtar, 4: 22-3, H.M. Saeed Company]

[Fatawa Mahmudiyyah, 13: 545-7, Dar al-Iftaa Jamiah Faruqiyyah, Karachi]

[2] (قوله: والولد يتبع الأم في الملك والحرية والرق والتدبير والاستيلاد والكتابة) لإجماع الأمة؛ ولأن ماءه يكون مستهلكا بمائها فيرجح جانبها؛ ولأنه متيقن به من جهتها ولهذا يثبت نسب ولد الزنا وولد الملاعنة منها حتى ترثه ويرثها؛ لأنه قبل الانفصال هو كعضو من أعضائها حسا وحكما حتى يتغذى بغذائها ويدخل في البيع والعتق وغيرهما من التصرفات تبعا لها فكان جانبها أرجح

[Al-Bahr ar-Ra`iq Sharh Kanz ad-Daqa`iq wa Minhat al-Khaliq wa Takmilat at-Turi, 4: 251; Tabyin al-Haqa`iq Sharh Kanz ad-Daqa`iq, 7: 418]

وعصبة ولد الزنا وولد الملاعنة موالي أمهما لأنه لا أب له فترثه قرابة أمه ويرثهم

[Al-Fatawa al-alamgiriyyah, 6: 452, Dar al-Fikr; al-Ikhtiyar li Ta`lil al-Mukhtar]

[3] قال - رحمه الله - (ويرث ولد الزنا واللعان من جهة الأم فقط) ؛ لأن نسبه من جهة الأب منقطع فلا يرث به ومن جهة الأم ثابت فيرث به أمه وأخته من الأم بالفرض لا غير

[Al-Bahr ar-Ra`iq Sharh Kanz ad-Daqa`iq wa Minhat al-Khaliq wa Takmilat at-Turi, 8: 574; ad-Durr al-Mukhtar ma`a Radd al-Muhtar, 6: 800, H.M. Saeed Company]


وأما بيان من يصلح للإمامة في الجملة فهو كل عاقل مسلم، حتى تجوز إمامة العبد، والأعرابي، والأعمى، وولد الزنا والفاسق، وهذا قول العامة،

[Bada`I as-Sana`I fi Tartib as-Shara`I, 1: 156; 2: 122

ويكره تقديم العبد " لأنه لا يتفرغ للتعلم " والأعرابي " لأن الغالب فيهم الجهل " والفاسق " لأنه لا يهتم لأمر دينه " والأعمى " لأنه لا يتوقى النجاسة " وولد الزنا " لأنه ليس له أب يثقفه فيغلب عليه الجهل ولأن في تقديم هؤلاء تنفير الجماعة فيكره " وإن تقدموا جاز " لقوله عليه الصلاة والسلام " صلوا خلف كل بر وفاجر "

[Al-Hidayah fi Sharh Bidayat al-mubtadi, 1: 57; al-Ikhtiyar li Ta`lil al-Mukhtar, 1: 58; Al-Inayah Sharh al-Hidayah, 1: 350; al-Jawharat an-nayyirah ala Mukhtasar al-Quduri, 1: 59]



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