Category: Beliefs
Fatwa#: 24283
Asked Country: India

Answered Date: Feb 11,2013

Title: Are the Ṣifāt (Attributes) of Allah Taʿālā eternal and everlasting?

Question

a/w Mufti Saab.

 I have faith and believe that Allah is eternal and everlasting, but does all sifat(all attributes) of allah are also eternal and everlasting (without beginning or end; lasting forever; always existing)

I would appreciate If you can clear me  by giving the reference of quran and hadis in details.

Lots of Thanks.

 


Answer

In the Name of Allah, the Most Gracious, the Most Merciful

As-salāmu ʿalaykum wa-raḥmatullāhi wa-barakātuh

Just as the Dhāt (Being) of Allah Taʿālā is eternal and everlasting, so are His Ṣifāt (Attributes OF His Being) eternal and everlasting.

 

Imām Abu Jaʿfar al-Ṭaḥāwī mentions in his book of ʿAqīdah (beliefs):

«مَا زَالَ بِصِفَاتِهِ قَدِيمًا قَبْلَ خَلْقِهِ، لَمْ يَزْدَدْ بِكَوْنِهِمْ شَيْئًا لَمْ يَكُنْ قَبْلَهُمْ مِنْ صِفَتِهِ، وَكَمَا كَانَ بِصِفَاتِهِ أَزَلِيًّا، كَذَلِكَ لَا يَزَالُ عَلَيْهَا أَبَدِيًّا.»[1]

“Allah Taʿālā always had His Ṣifāt (Attributes) without any beginning, before His Creation; none of His Sifāt (Attributes) increased by the Creation becoming what they were not before them (being created)(i.e. non-existent); and like how He always had His Ṣifāt (Attributes) without any beginning, similarly, He will always remain having them, forever.”

 

Imām Abu Ḥanifah mentions in his book, al-Fiqh al-Akbar:

«لم يزل وَلَا يزَال بصفاته وأسمائه لم يحدث لَهُ صفة وَلَا اسْم، لم يزل عالماً بِعِلْمِه والعلم صفة فِي الْأَزَل وقادرا بقدرته وَالْقُدْرَة صفة فِي الْأَزَل ومتكلما بِكَلَامِهِ وَالْكَلَام صفة فِي الْأَزَل وخالقا بتخليقه والتخليق صفة فِي الْأَزَل وفاعلا بِفِعْلِهِ وَالْفِعْل صفة فِي الْأَزَل والفاعل هو الله تعالى والفعلُ صفة في الأَزَل والمفعولُ مخلوق وفعلُ الله تعالى غيرُ مخلوق وصفاتُه في الأَزَل غيرُ محدَثَة ولا مَخلوقة»[2]

“(Allah Taʿālā) always had and will always have His Attributes and His Names. No new attribute or new name later occurred for Him. He was always knowing by His Knowledge, and  knowledge is an attribute (of His) without any beginning; and (was always) powerful by His Power, and power is an attribute (of His) without any beginning; and (was always) a speaker by His Speech, and speech is an attribute (of His) without any beginning; and (was always) a creator by His Creating, and creating is an attribute (of His) without any beginning; and (was always) a doer by His Doing, and doing is an attribute (of His) without any beginning; and the doer is only Allah Taʿālā, and doing is an attribute (of His) without any beginning, and that which is done is a creation, and Allah’s Taʿālā doing is not a creation; and His Attributes, which are such that they do not have a beginning, are not an invention nor a creation.”

 

Furthermore, all the attributes of Allah Taʿālā are perfect. If one says that the attributes of Allah Taʿālā are not eternal and everlasting, then this would be tantamount to saying that Allah Taʿālā was not perfect at some time, as He did not have His perfect attributes at that time (We seek the protection of Allah Taʿālā from such a belief or statement.)[3]

 

And Allah Taʿālā Knows Best

Mahmood Patel
Student, Darul Iftaa
Azaadville, South Africa

Checked and Approved by
Mufti Ebrahim Desai

www.daruliftaa.net

 



[1] متن الطحاوية، المطبوع مع شرحها لعبد الغني الميداني الحنفي، دار البصائر (ص: 56)

[2] الفقه الأكبر، المطبوع مع شرحه منح الروض الأزهر، دار البشائر الإسلامية (ص: 87 - 91)

[3] فلو حدث له صفة أو زال عنه نعت لكان قبل حدوث تلك الصفة وبعد زوال ذلك النعت ناقصا عن مقام الكمال، وهو في حقه سبحانه من المحال، فصفاته تعالى كلها أزلية أبدية. (منح الروض الأزهر في شرح الفقه الأكبر، دار البشائر الإسلامية (ص: 87)

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