Category: Misc. Fiqh
Fatwa#: 23519
Asked Country: Saudi Arabia

Answered Date: Dec 20,2012

Title: My wife had a miscarriage and is pregnant for a second time. Should I take her for a test to ascertain the condition of the baby?

Question

Assalam Alaikum

I am an Indian living in Saudi Arabia. I got married to my cousin (mother's sister's daughter - Qala ki beti) in July 2011. Alhamdulillah by the grace of Allah, my wife was pregnant first time. Unfortunately, due to unknown reasons, she had a miscarriage.

Now she is pregnant again Alhamdulillah and the doctors informed that since we are first cousins, it so happend the first time. She will be almost 3 months pregnant on 20th of this month and the doctors called her for some test to know the baby's health on 12th of December.

I also want to inform you that my mother in law and father in law are also first cousins (Qaala-zaad bhai behen) just like my case.

So I am in extreme doubt that should I go for the test? If by the grace of Allah Almighty everything is fine, Alhamdulillah. In case, Allah forbid, something is wrong, should an abortion be done before 20th?

Or should I have my complete faith in Allah Almighty and not do the tests and make lots of prayers and keep 'mannat' and wait till childbirth?

I am in a big confusion. Kindly reply as soon as possible and kindly pray for me that Allah bless me with healthy and pious chirdren, now and rest of my life - Aameen and Insha Allah

Answer

In the Name of Allah, the Most Gracious, the Most Merciful.

 

As-salāmu ‘alaykum wa-rahmatullāhi wa-barakātuh.

 

We acknowledge that a miscarriage for a woman is a consequence of physical complications and is emotionally painful. However, no pain is in vain. A woman is greatly rewarded for every pain, physically and emotionally that she experiences during a miscarriage.

 

It is not entirely correct to attribute a miscarriage to the spouses being close relatives. Hadrat Ali Radiallaho Anhu and Hadrat Fatima Radiallaho Anha were close relatives, yet she bore Hadrat Hasan Radiallaho Anhu and Hardrat Husain Radiallaho Anhu who were most handsome, very healthy and also physically strong.

 

If you already experienced complications in your previous pregnancy, then you should follow the advice and guidance of your doctor and place your trust in Allah. As Muslims we believe in Taqdir (destiny).[1]  Everything, good and bad, is in the Control of Allah.

 

Abortion before 120 days is permissible when there is a valid reason.[2]

Attached below is the article on abortion by my respected ustad Hadrat Mufti Ebrahim Desai Saheb, Madda Zillahu.

 

Put your trust in Allah and keep making dua.

 

 

And Allah Ta’āla Knows Best

 

 

Saeed Ahmed Golaub

Jamaica

Student Darul Iftaa

 

Checked and Approved

Mufti Ebrahim Desai

daruliftaa.net 

 

ISLAMIC PERSPECTIVE ON ABORTION 

  

(Al-Mahmood by Mufti Ebrahim Desai) 

  

Almighty Allah Ta'ala says in the Quran: "Life is from a decree of my Lord." (Surah 12 Verse 85). The above verse is self explanatory on the sanctity and significance of life. Generally every decree is from Allah Ta'ala but the honour of attribution increases its sanctity and demands its highest level of reverence. This command is mentioned in many verses of the Noble Quran - Allah Ta'ala says:"Whosoever has spared the life of a soul, it is as though he has spared the life of all people. Whosoever has killed a soul, it is as though he has murdered all of mankind." (Surah 5 Verse 32) 

  

The above should suffice to express the sanctity of the Rooh (life). The Noble Qur'an describes the various stages of man's primordial development but it does not specify the exact duration of each state. In one verse of the Noble Qur'an, Almighty Allah Ta'ala says, "Man, We did create from a quintessence (of clay); then We placed him as (a drop of) sperm in a place of rest, firmly fixed; then We made the sperm into a clot of congealed blood; then of that clot We made a (foetus) lump; then We made out of that lump bones, and clothed the bones with flesh; then We developed out of it another creature: So blessed be Allah, the best to create." (Surah 23 Verses 12 and 14) 

  

In a Hadith related by Bukhari and Muslim, our beloved Rasulullah (Sallallaahu Alayhi Wasallam) said, "Verily the creation of each one of you is brought together in his mother's belly for forty days in the form of a seed, then he is a clot of blood for a like period, then an angel is sent to him who blows the breath of life into him..." 

  

Based on the above references, Muslim jurists have deduced that the first four months (120 days) of gestation is the crucial time period. After this the foetus is regarded as being 'alive' and an abortion is not permissible for any reason whatsoever; and, should an abortion be done then it would constitute murder. Thus an abortion may be performed within the 120 days period only if there is a valid Shar’ee reason. (Family Planning and Abortion, by Qaadhi Mujahidul Islam, published by the IMA of South Africa)

 

Upon and after 120 days, it will not be permissible to abort the child. Almighty Allah Ta'ala, the All-Knowing, the All Merciful, has endowed the foetus with life. The heights of His Infinite Wisdom cannot be reached nor comprehended. The importance of the biggest problem in the circumstances cannot be equivalent to the importance of the Rooh (life). In general, abortion is not permissible but within 120 days as stated above; however, it is permissible to abort the child in the following instances:

 

1.      Rape and incest

2.      Proven abnormalities, e.g. Anencephaly (no brain), Downs Syndrome, Trisomy, HIV positive, congenital rubella health.

3.      If the foetal abnormalities are not proven but speculated, if there is a high risk that a woman may suffer from any of the above factors, then in the opinion of an honest, reliable and an experienced Muslim doctor, abortion may be permissible prior to the four months' gestation. It must be stressed that these are exceptional circumstances in which an abortion is allowed. Once again, it must be emphasized that the permission granted rests on medical grounds. (Ibid)

4.      If there is a high risk of the mother's permanent mental well-being and if the doctor is certain (Zanne Ghaalib) that the depression, schizophrenia will be permanent and incurable.

5.      Abortion before 120 days is not permissible due to spacing of children, financial constraints, young age and unwed mothers.

 

 

 

 

 



[1]: قَالَ: فَأَخْبِرْنِي عَنِ الْإِيمَانِ. قَالَ: «أَنْ تُؤْمِنَ بِاللَّهِ وَمَلَائِكَتِهِ وَكُتُبِهِ وَرُسُلِهِ وَالْيَوْمِ الْآخِرِ وَتُؤْمِنَ بِالْقَدَرِ خَيْرِهِ وَشَرِّهِ» . قَالَ صَدَقْتَ. قَالَ: فَأَخْبِرْنِي عَنِ الْإِحْسَانِ. قَالَ: «أَنْ تَعْبُدَ اللَّهَ كَأَنَّكَ تَرَاهُ فَإِنْ لَمْ تَكُنْ تَرَاهُ فَإِنَّهُ يَرَاكَ»   مشكاة المصابيح (1 / 9)

 

[2]:مَطْلَبٌ فِي حُكْمِ إسْقَاطِ الْحَمْلِ

(قَوْلُهُ وَقَالُوا إلَخْ) قَالَ فِي النَّهْرِ: بَقِيَ هَلْ يُبَاحُ الْإِسْقَاطُ بَعْدَ الْحَمْلِ؟ نَعَمْ يُبَاحُ مَا لَمْ يَتَخَلَّقْ مِنْهُ شَيْءٌ وَلَنْ يَكُونَ ذَلِكَ إلَّا بَعْدَ مِائَةٍ وَعِشْرِينَ يَوْمًا، وَهَذَا يَقْتَضِي أَنَّهُمْ أَرَادُوا بِالتَّخْلِيقِ نَفْخَ الرُّوحِ وَإِلَّا فَهُوَ غَلَطٌ لِأَنَّ التَّخْلِيقَ يَتَحَقَّقُ بِالْمُشَاهَدَةِ قَبْلَ هَذِهِ الْمُدَّةِ كَذَا فِي الْفَتْحِ، وَإِطْلَاقُهُمْ يُفِيدُ عَدَمَ تَوَقُّفِ جَوَازِ إسْقَاطِهَا قَبْلَ الْمُدَّةِ الْمَذْكُورَةِ عَلَى إذْنِ الزَّوْجِ. وَفِي كَرَاهَةِ الْخَانِيَّةِ: وَلَا أَقُولُ بِالْحِلِّ إذْ الْمُحْرِمُ لَوْ كَسَرَ بَيْضَ الصَّيْدِ ضَمِنَهُ لِأَنَّهُ أَصْلُ الصَّيْدِ فَلَمَّا كَانَ يُؤَاخَذُ بِالْجَزَاءِ فَلَا أَقَلَّ مِنْ أَنْ يَلْحَقَهَا إثْمٌ هُنَا إذَا سَقَطَ بِغَيْرِ عُذْرِهَا اهـ قَالَ ابْنُ وَهْبَانَ: وَمِنْ الْأَعْذَارِ أَنْ يَنْقَطِعَ لَبَنُهَا بَعْدَ ظُهُورِ الْحَمْلِ وَلَيْسَ لِأَبِي الصَّبِيِّ مَا يَسْتَأْجِرُ بِهِ الظِّئْرَ وَيَخَافُ هَلَاكَهُ. وَنُقِلَ عَنْ الذَّخِيرَةِ لَوْ أَرَادَتْ الْإِلْقَاءَ قَبْلَ مُضِيِّ زَمَنٍ يُنْفَخُ فِيهِ الرُّوحُ هَلْ يُبَاحُ لَهَا ذَلِكَ أَمْ لَا؟ اخْتَلَفُوا فِيهِ، وَكَانَ الْفَقِيهُ عَلِيُّ بْنُ مُوسَى يَقُولُ: إنَّهُ يُكْرَهُ، فَإِنَّ الْمَاءَ بَعْدَمَا وَقَعَ فِي الرَّحِمِ مَآلُهُ الْحَيَاةُ فَيَكُونُ لَهُ حُكْمُ الْحَيَاةِ كَمَا فِي بَيْضَةِ صَيْدِ الْحَرَمِ، وَنَحْوُهُ فِي الظَّهِيرِيَّةِ قَالَ ابْنُ وَهْبَانَ: فَإِبَاحَةُ الْإِسْقَاطِ مَحْمُولَةٌ عَلَى حَالَةِ الْعُذْرِ، أَوْ أَنَّهَا لَا تَأْثَمُ إثْمَ الْقَتْلِ اهـ. وَبِمَا فِي الذَّخِيرَةِ تَبَيَّنَ أَنَّهُمْ مَا أَرَادُوا بِالتَّحْقِيقِ إلَّا نَفْخُ الرُّوحِ، وَأَنَّ قَاضِيَ خَانْ مَسْبُوقٌ بِمَا مَرَّ مِنْ التَّفَقُّهِ، وَاَللَّهُ تَعَالَى الْمُوَفِّقُ اهـ كَلَامُ النَّهْرِ ح.

[تَنْبِيهٌ] أُخِذَ فِي النَّهْرِ مِنْ هَذَا وَمِمَّا قَدَّمَهُ الشَّارِحُ عَنْ الْخَانِيَّةِ وَالْكَمَالِ أَنَّهُ يَجُوزُ لَهَا سَدُّ فَمِ رَحِمِهَا كَمَا تَفْعَلُهُ النِّسَاءُ مُخَالِفًا لِمَا بَحَثَهُ فِي الْبَحْرِ مِنْ أَنَّهُ يَنْبَغِي أَنْ يَكُونَ حَرَامًا بِغَيْرِ إذْنِ الزَّوْجِ قِيَاسًا عَلَى عَزْلِهِ بِغَيْرِ إذْنِهَا. الدر المختار وحاشية ابن عابدين (رد المحتار) (3 / 176)

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