Fatwa: # 21844
Category: Jurisprudence and Rulings...
Country: India
Date: 26th April 2019

Title

Shi’ah mut’ah

Question

Aslam u alaikum,

My question is regarding muttaah (temporary marriage) concept in Shia.

Question 1- Is it valid to go for muttaah in Islam?

Question 2- Can Shia male and Sunni female go for muttah?

Question 3- If any Sunni female and Shia male had muttah then will it be called zina? If it is zina then what sunni female has to do to seek forgiveness from Allah?

Question 4- After completion of muttaah period, Can Sunni female marry Sunni male?

I hope that i will get answers as soon as possible and in the light of Quran and hadith.

Answer

In the Name of Allaah, the Most Gracious, the Most Merciful.

As-salaamu ‘alaykum wa-rahmatullaahi wa-barakaatuh.

1.      At the outset, mut’ah (temporary marriage) is not permissible. It is a major sin and is in essence zinaa. Consider the following Ahaadith:

عن عبد الله والحسن ابني محمد بن علي، عن أبيهما، عن علي بن أبي طالب، أن النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم نهى عن متعة النساء.... زمن خيبر[1]

Translation: Sayyiduna ‘Ali ibn Abi Taalib (Radhiyallaahu ‘anh) narrates that the Prophet (Sallallaahu ‘alaihi wasallam) forbade from mut’ah (marriages) with women at the occasion of Khaybar. (Tirmidhi)

أَنَّ رَسُولَ اللَّهِ صَلَّى اللهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ نَهَى عَنْهَا فِي حَجَّةِ الْوَدَاعِ[2]

Translation: “Indeed, Rasulullaah (Sallallaahu ‘alaihi wasallam) reiterated the prohibition of it (nikaah mut’ah) in the Farewell Hajj.” (Abu Dawood)

It is important to understand that the mut’ah marriages that were found in the era of Rasulullaah (Sallallaahu ‘alaihi wasallam) were legitimate marriages and the conditions and regulations of a normal matrimony were found therein. This is not the case today with the Shi’ah mut’ah.  We list hereunder some fundamental differences between a valid nikaah and the mut’ah practiced by the Shi’ahs:

Nikaah

Mut’ah

Intended to be lifelong

Intended to be for a short period, even for half hour[3]

Two witnesses required for validity of nikaah

No witnesses required[4]

Permission of wali is required according to the majority

Permission of wali is not necessary

Financial responsibility and housing (nafaqah and suknaa) is on the husband

Man bears no responsibility, even in a case where he impregnates the lady[5]

Wife is entitled to inheritance after the husband’s demise

Lady is not entitled to any inheritance[6]

Nikaah is terminated by a valid divorce

Mut’ah terminates automatically upon termination of fixed time.

‘Iddah after divorce

No ‘iddah after fixed time finishes[7]. A woman may engage in mut’ah with many men in one single night (mut’ah dawriyyah)[8]

 

2.      It is haraam to engage in mut’ah. Both parties will be sinful and their intimacy will be regarded to be zinaa.

3.      If a person engages in mut’ah, it is zinaa. He/she should make sincere tawbah and istighfaar. The scholars have stated that for the validity of tawbah (repentance), three factors must be found :

a.       to abandon the sin

b.      to have remorse and regret over having committing the sin

c.       to make a firm intention to not commit the sin again

Moreover, one should seek forgiveness from Allaah Ta’aala (istighfaar) daily for the sin in reference and for all sins in general. Rasulullaah (Sallallaahu ‘alaihi wasallam), despite being sinless, would seek forgiveness a hundred times daily. When repenting and seeking forgiveness, one should have full hope in Allaah Ta’aala that He will shower upon him/her with His infinite mercy and compassion and pardon his/her sins.

4.      After committing the grave sin of fornication disguised in the form of mut’ah and having made sincere tawbah, it will be permissible for one to marry a Sunni provided she waits the ‘iddah period.

And Allaah Ta’aala Knows Best.

Muajul I. Chowdhury

Student, Darul Iftaa

Astoria, New York, USA

Checked and Approved by,

Mufti Ebrahim Desai.

________


[1]  سنن الترمذي (2/ 421)

1121 - حدثنا ابن أبي عمر، قال: حدثنا سفيان، عن الزهري، عن عبد الله، والحسن، ابني محمد بن علي، عن أبيهما، عن علي بن أبي طالب، أن النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم نهى عن متعة النساء، وعن لحوم الحمر الأهلية زمن خيبر.

وفي الباب عن سبرة الجهني، وأبي هريرة.

حديث علي حديث حسن صحيح، والعمل على هذا عند أهل العلم من أصحاب النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم، وغيرهم وإنما روي عن ابن عباس شيء من الرخصة في المتعة، ثم رجع عن قوله حيث أخبر عن النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم.

وأمر أكثر أهل العلم على تحريم المتعة، وهو قول الثوري، وابن المبارك، والشافعي، وأحمد، وإسحاق.

 

سنن الترمذي (2/ 421)

1122 - حدثنا محمود بن غيلان، قال: حدثنا سفيان بن عقبة، أخو قبيصة بن عقبة، قال: حدثنا سفيان الثوري، عن موسى بن عبيدة، عن محمد بن كعب، عن ابن عباس قال: إنما كانت المتعة في أول الإسلام، كان الرجل يقدم البلدة ليس له بها معرفة فيتزوج المرأة بقدر ما يرى أنه يقيم فتحفظ له متاعه، وتصلح له شيئه، حتى إذا نزلت الآية: {إلا على أزواجهم أو ما ملكت أيمانهم}، قال ابن عباس: فكل فرج سوى هذين فهو حرام.

 

[2]  سنن أبي داود (2/ 226)

2072 - حدثنا مسدد بن مسرهد، حدثنا عبد الوارث، عن إسماعيل بن أمية، عن الزهري، قال: كنا عند عمر بن عبد العزيز، فتذاكرنا متعة النساء، فقال له رجل: يقال له ربيع بن سبرة: أشهد على أبي أنه حدث أن رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم «نهى عنها في حجة الوداع»

 

سنن أبي داود (2/ 227)

2073 - حدثنا محمد بن يحيى بن فارس، حدثنا عبد الرزاق، أخبرنا معمر، عن الزهري، عن ربيع بن سبرة، عن أبيه، أن النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم «حرم متعة النساء»

 

[3] تهذيب الأحكام (شيعي) (5/ 455)

[4] تهذيب الأحكام (شيعي) (5/ 451)

[5] تهذيب الأحكام (شيعي) (5/ 457)

[6] تهذيب الأحكام (شيعي) (5/ 455)

[7] تهذيب الأحكام (شيعي) (5/ 456)

[8] تحذير المسلمين للقاضي نور الله شوستاري الشيعي (ص. 302)

تحفة إثنى عشرية (ص. 403-406)

تحفة الوهاب (1/ 137)

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