Category: Hadith
Fatwa#: 19811
Asked Country: South Africa

Answered Date: Mar 07,2012

Title: Please elaborate on the types of socks permitted to be wiped over in Wudhu.

Question

Assalamu Alaikum Respected and Honorable Mufti Ibrahim Sahib-

The ahadith below has been circulated in our community in regards to wiping over socks in wudhu.

I would like to know what types of socks are permissible and what exactly is meant my "thick" socks, with or without soles.

Jazakumullah khair

Assalamu Alaikum,

This is just an attempt to provide you some Ahadeeth on performing Massah (ya'ni wiping over socks instead of washing feet).  This is a very useful knowledge in this century where we spend our day time at work away from our Masajid and homes.

However, we advise, seek more ahadeeth on this subject.  May Allah (SWT) grant us more ilm Naa'feh (useful knowledge in Deen) to facilitate our duities properly.

Should you happen to differ or have different opinions, alhamddulillah, please share with us, May Allah reward you.

We are all learning together.

The ahadeeth."

 
Jami At-Tirmidhi
The Chapters on Purification

Chapter 74. [What Has Been Related] About Wiping Over The Socks And The Sandals

99. Al-Mughirah bin Shu’bah narrated: “The Prophet (sallallaahu alahe wa sallam) performed Wudu and wiped over his socks and sandals.”

Abu Eisa (Tirmidhi) said: This hadith is Hasan Sahih.

It is the opinion of more than one of the people of knowledge. It is the view of Sufyan Ath-Thawri, Ibn Mubarak, Ash-Shafii, Ahmad, and Ishaq. They say that one may wipe over the socks even if they are not soled, when they are thick.

[He said:] There is also a narration on this topic from Abu Musa.

[Abu Eisa said: I heard Salih bin Muhammad At-Thirmidhi say: I heard Abu Muqatil As-Samarqandi say: ‘I entered upon Abu Hanifafh during the illness that he died from. He (Abu Hanifah) called for water to perform Wudu with while wearing socks. So he wiped over them, then he said: “Today I do something that I did not do (before); I wipe over socks while they are not soled.’]"

Answer

In the Name of Allah, the Most Gracious, the Most Merciful.

As-salāmu ‘alaykum wa-rahmatullāhi wa-barakātuh.

It is a well-known fact that wiping over Khuffain (leather socks) in place of washing feet in Wudhu is valid.  Hāfidh Ibn Al-Hajar Rahimahullāh states in his commentary on Sahīh Al-Bukhārī:

وَجَمَعَ بَعْضُهُمْ رُوَاتَهُ فَجَاوَزُوا الثَّمَانِينَ (فتح الباري, ج 1, ص 306: دار المعرفة - بيروت، 1379)

Some experts of Hadīth have gathered the (number of) Companions who narrate Ahādīth with regards to wiping over Khuffain and they (the Companions) reached over eighty (in number). (Fath Al-Bārī)

The common word used in books of Ahādīth for socks is خفين (Khuffain).  Khuffan refers leather socks.  Another word used isجوربين  (Jawrabain) which are socks made from wool, cotton, etc.   

Jawrabain are further divided into three types:

1.      منعلين (Muna’alain) – The soles (bottom of the socks) have leather.

2.      مجلدين   (Mujalladain)-  The top and bottom have leather.

  

3.      Plain Jawrabain- This does not have leather at all

The Hadīth referred to in the query is as follows:

 

 

عَنْ المُغِيرَةِ بْنِ شُعْبَةَ، قَالَ: «تَوَضَّأَ النَّبِيُّ صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ وَمَسَحَ عَلَى الجَوْرَبَيْنِ وَالنَّعْلَيْنِ» (سنن الترمذي, ج 1, ص 167: شركة مكتبة ومطبعة مصطفى البابي الحلبي – مصر)

 

 

Mughīrah bin Shu’bah Radhiyallāhu Anhu narrates that Nabī Sallallāhu Alaihi Wa Sallam performed Wudhu and wiped over his Jawrabain and sandals. (Sunan At-Tirmidhi)

 

According to the Hanafi school of thought, wiping over Mujalladain is valid.  And wiping over Muna’alain is valid if the Muna’alain are made from material that is classified as thick. [1]

 

The Jurists state that plain Jawrabain (void of leather) qualify for wiping in Wudhu only if they are classified as ثخين (thick).  Even Imām Tirmidhi Rahimahullāh states that wiping over Jawrabain is permissible on condition that they are thick. Wiping over thin socks is not valid.   Each Jurist has set his own criteria to determine what constitutes thickness.

 

Hereunder are the views of the Shāfi’, Mālikī, Hambali, and Hanafī schools of thought on wiping over socks.

 

Al-Madhab Ash-Shāfi’ī:  One of the conditions is that it is necessary for the socks to be of such nature that they prevent water from penetrating inside when water is poured over the socks.  This is mentioned by Allāmah Ibn Al-Hajar Al-Haitami in his book of Shāfi’ī Jurisprudence named “Tuhfah Al-Muhtāj”. He says:

(وَلَا يُجْزِئُ مَنْسُوجٌ لَا يَمْنَعُ مَاءً) يُصَبُّ عَلَى رِجْلَيْهِ أَيْ نُفُوذَهُ وَإِنْ كَانَ قَوِيًّا يُمْكِنُ تِبَاعُ الْمَشْيِ عَلَيْهِ (فِي الْأَصَحِّ) (تحفة المحتاج, ج 1, ص 252: المكتبة التجارية الكبرى بمصر لصاحبها مصطفى محمد)
 

(Woven socks that do not prevent water are not sufficient) i.e. they do not prevent water when water is poured over their feet i.e. they don’t prevent water from penetrating.  They do not suffice even though they may be strong to such an extent that it is possible to continuously walk with the socks.  (This is the correct view). (Tuhfah Al-Muhtāj) [2]

Al-Madhab Al- Mālikī:  It is necessary for the validity of Jawrabain that they have to be Mujalladain also.  In other words, the Jawrabain’s top parts (above the foot) and soles must be covered with leather.  Socks of any other material void of leather are not sufficient for wiping.  Khalīl Rahimahullāh has stated in his work on the Mālikī Madhab “Mukhtasar Al-Khalīl”:

 

رخص لرجل وامرأة وإن مستحاضة بحضر أو سفر مسح جورب جلد ظاهره وباطنه(مختصر الخليل, ج 1, ص 23: دار الحديث/القاهرة) 

Concession has been granted to men and women, while at home or in journey to wipe over Jawrab socks which is such that it’s top portion and sole is covered with leather. (Mukhtasar Al-Khalīl) [3]

Al-Madhab Al- Hambali:  The Jawrabain must be thick to such an extent that continuous walking must be possible as is the case of Khuffain.  Mansūr Al-Hambali Rahimahullāh states in his book on Hambali jurisprudence named Sharh Muntahā Al-Irādāt:

(وَ) يَصِحُّ الْمَسْحُ أَيْضًا عَلَى (جَوْرَبٍ صَفِيقٍ مِنْ صُوفٍ أَوْ غَيْرِهِ)  (شرح منتهي الارادات, 1, 61: عالم الكتب)

Wiping is valid over a thick Jawrab made from wool or any other material. (Sharh Muntahā Al-Irādāt)

He further says:

 

وَلِأَنَّهُ فِي مَعْنَى الْخُفِّ إذْ هُوَ مَلْبُوسٌ سَاتِرٌ لِمَحَلِّ الْفَرْضِ يُمْكِنُ مُتَابَعَةُ الْمَشْيِ فِيهِ، أَشْبَهَ الْخُفَّ (شرح منتهي الارادات, 1, 61: عالم الكتب)


This is because (thick) socks are similar to leather socks in the sense that they cover the essential areas of the foot and it is possible to walk continuously in them as is the case with leather socks. (Sharh Muntahā Al-Irādāt) [4]


Al-Madhab Al-Hanafi: There are four conditions for socks to be classified as thick.  Allāmah Haskafi Rahimahullāh mentions in his work named Ad-Durr Al-Mukhtār:

                                               

(الثَّخِينَيْنِ) بِحَيْثُ يَمْشِي فَرْسَخًا وَيَثْبُتُ عَلَى السَّاقِ وَلَا يُرَى مَا تَحْتَهُ وَلَا يَشِفُّ إلَّا أَنْ يَنْفُذَ إلَى الْخُفِّ قَدْرُ الْغَرَضِ (رد المحتار, ج1, ص269: دار الفكر-بيروت) 

Characteristics of thick socks:

1.       Must be able to walk 3 Shari’ miles without tear

2.      Must be able to stand on its own because of its thickness, (not because of its elasticity or tightness)

3.      Water should not seep through and reach the feet

4.      Must not be transparent that the foot is visible (Radd Al-Muhtār) [5]

 

In conclusion, the following points are clear from the aforementioned information:

 

1.      It is permissible to wipe over full leather socks.

2.      It is permissible to wipe over Mujalladain (leather on top and bottom of the socks).

3.      With regards to non-leather socks that do not have any leather, they must meet the requirements of thickness in order for wiping to be valid. 

4.      Non-leather thin socks like the cotton and nylon socks etc. are unanimously impermissible for wiping.

 

Advice

 

We take this opportunity to offer the following advice:

In issues of Ibādāt (worships) like Wudhu, Salāh, Haj, etc. we should exercise precaution as it is our means of communicating with Allāh and relating to Allāh.  Allāh is perfect.  We should offer our best to Allāh.  We should thus abstain from anything that is doubtful.  Every endeavor should be made to make our acts of worship acceptable to Allāh.  Wudhu is a pre-requisite for the validity of Salāh.  Rasullullāh Sallallāhu Alaihi Wa Sallam has stated:

 
“The key to Salāh is purification.” (Sunan At-Tirmidhī, Vol. 1, Page 6) [6]

It is possible one may argue that Wudhu with cotton or nylon socks is valid.  However, the fact that such great and illustrious Ulamā and scholars state the opposite should be strongly considered at least for one’s own benefit.  The issue is to validate one’s Wudhu.  It is not prudent to risk the loss of one’s Salāh due to the Wudhu being invalid.

Furthermore, an Imām of a Masjid should be sensitive to such differences.  There are people in the congregation that strongly believe that Wudhu on thin socks is invalid.  Such a view is supported by juridical texts from great Ulamā.  It is highly insensitive to disregard the feelings of the members of one’s congregation.  Instead of arguing in support of one’s view, it is in keeping with leadership to rise above a divisive issue.  That is also in keeping with the level of Taqwā an Imām ought to be displaying to his congregation.  

 

And Allah Ta’āla Knows Best

Mawlana Abdul Azīm bin Abdur Rahman,
Student Darul Iftaa
US

Checked and Approved by,
Mufti Ebrahim Desai.
www.daruliftaa.net



[1]  مسائل رفعت قاسمي, ج 1, ص 26: حامد كتب خانه كراتشي

 

[2]  (وَلَا يُجْزِئُ مَنْسُوجٌ لَا يَمْنَعُ مَاءً) يُصَبُّ عَلَى رِجْلَيْهِ أَيْ نُفُوذَهُ وَإِنْ كَانَ قَوِيًّا يُمْكِنُ تِبَاعُ الْمَشْيِ عَلَيْهِ (فِي الْأَصَحِّ) لِأَنَّهُ خِلَافُ الْغَالِبِ مِنْ الْخِفَافِ الْمُنْصَرِفِ إلَيْهَا النُّصُوصُ وَلَيْسَ كَمُنْخَرِقِ الْبِطَانَةِ وَالظِّهَارَةِ بِلَا تَحَاذٍ؛ لِأَنَّ هَذَا مَعَ عَدَمِ مَنْعِهِ لِنُفُوذِ الْمَاءِ إلَى الرِّجْلِ يُسَمَّى خُفًّا فَهُوَ كَخُفٍّ يَصِلُ الْمَاءُ مِنْ مَحَلِّ خَرْزِهِ بِخِلَافِ ذَاكَ كَجِلْدَةٍ شَدَّهَا عَلَى رِجْلَيْهِ وَأَحْكَمَهَا بِالرَّبْطِ بِجَامِعِ أَنَّ كُلًّا لَا يُسَمَّى خُفًّا وَفِي وَجْهٍ أَنَّ الْمُعْتَبَرَ مَاءُ الْمَسْحِ لَا الْغَسْلِ وَهُوَ ضَعِيفٌ نَقْلًا وَمُدْرَكًا وَإِنْ جَرَى عَلَيْهِ جَمْعٌ؛ لِأَنَّ أَدْنَى شَيْءٍ يَمْنَعُ مَاءَ الْمَسْحِ أَمَّا مَنْسُوجٌ يَمْنَعُ مَاءَ الْغَسْلِ فَيُجْزِئُ كَلِبَدٍ وَخِرَقٍ مُطَبَّقَةٍ.  (تحفة المحتاج, ج 1, ص 252: المكتبة التجارية الكبرى بمصر لصاحبها مصطفى محمد)

 

[3]   رخص لرجل وامرأة وإن مستحاضة بحضر أو سفر مسح جورب جلد ظاهره وباطنه وخف ولو على خف بلا حائل: كطين إلا المهماز3 ولا حد بشرط جلد طاهر خرز وستر محل الفرض وأمكن تتابع المشي به (مختصر الخليل, ج 1, ص 24-23: دار الحديث/القاهرة)

 

 

[4]  (وَ) يَصِحُّ الْمَسْحُ أَيْضًا عَلَى (جَوْرَبٍ صَفِيقِ) نُعِلَ أَوَّلًا لِحَدِيثِ الْمُغِيرَةِ بْنِ شُعْبَةَ «أَنَّ النَّبِيَّ صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ مَسَحَ عَلَى الْجَوْرَبَيْنِ وَالنَّعْلَيْنِ» رَوَاهُ أَحْمَدُ وَأَبُو دَاوُد وَالتِّرْمِذِيُّ وَقَالَ: حَسَنٌ صَحِيحٌ.

وَهَذَا يَدُلُّ عَلَى أَنَّهُمَا كَانَا مَنْعُولَيْنِ ; لِأَنَّهُ لَوْ كَانَ كَذَلِكَ لَمْ يَذْكُرْ النَّعْلَيْنِ. إذْ لَا يُقَالُ: مَسَحَ عَلَى الْخُفِّ وَنَعْلِهِ، قَالَ ابْنُ الْمُنْذِرِ " تُرْوَى إبَاحَةُ الْمَسْحِ عَلَى الْجَوْرَبَيْنِ عَنْ تِسْعَةٍ مِنْ أَصْحَابِ النَّبِيِّ صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ: عَلِيٍّ وَعَمَّارٍ، وَابْنِ مَسْعُودٍ، وَأَنَسٍ، وَابْنِ عُمَرَ وَالْبَرَاءِ، وَبِلَالٍ، وَابْنِ أَبِي أَوْفَى، وَسَهْلِ بْنِ سَعْدٍ " انْتَهَى.

وَلَمْ يُعْرَفْ لَهُمْ مُخَالِفٌ فِي عَصْرِهِمْ، وَلِأَنَّهُ فِي مَعْنَى الْخُفِّ إذْ هُوَ مَلْبُوسٌ سَاتِرٌ لِمَحَلِّ الْفَرْضِ يُمْكِنُ مُتَابَعَةُ الْمَشْيِ فِيهِ، أَشْبَهَ الْخُفَّ وَتَكَلَّمَ فِي الْحَدِيثِ بَعْضُهُمْ، وَأُجِيبَ عَنْهُ بِمَا يُعْلَمُ مِنْ الْمُطَوَّلَاتِ (وَالْجَوْرَبُ) : غِشَاءٌ مِنْ صُوفٍ يُتَّخَذُ لِلدِّفْءِ، قَالَهُ الزَّرْكَشِيُّ. وَفِي شَرْحِهِ: وَلَعَلَّهُ اسْمٌ لِكُلِّ مَا يُلْبَسُ فِي الرِّجْلِ عَلَى هَيْئَةِ الْخُفِّ، مِنْ غَيْرِ الْجِلْدِ (حَتَّى لِزَمِنٍ) لَا يُمْكِنُهُ الْمَشْيُ لِعَاهَةٍ. فَيَجُوزُ لَهُ الْمَسْحُ عَلَى هَذِهِ الْحَوَائِلِ كَالسَّلِيمِ. (شرح منتهي الارادات, 1, 61: عالم الكتب)

[5]  احسن الفتاوي

[6]  حَدَّثَنَا عُثْمَانُ بْنُ أَبِي شَيْبَةَ، حَدَّثَنَا وَكِيعٌ، عَنْ سُفْيَانَ، عَنِ ابْنِ عَقِيلٍ، عَنْ مُحَمَّدِ ابْنِ الْحَنَفِيَّةِ، عَنْ عَلِيٍّ رَضِيَ اللَّهُ عَنْهُ، قَالَ: قَالَ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ صَلَّى اللهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ: «مِفْتَاحُ الصَّلَاةِ الطُّهُورُ، وَتَحْرِيمُهَا التَّكْبِيرُ، وَتَحْلِيلُهَا التَّسْلِيمُ» (سنن الترمذي, ج 1, ص 6: الرسالة العالمية)

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