Category: Daily
Fatwa#: 19553
Asked Country: Nigeria

Answered Date: Nov 07,2011

Title: Do voluntary prayers and fasts make up for missed obligatory prayers and fasts?

Question

Assalāmualaikum. On the day of judgment one of the first things counted will be prayers, as they have to be complete.  Salāh and fasting are compulsory.  I understand there is a part in the Masjid of Nabi Sallallāhu Alaihi Wa Sallam where if you happen to pray, it is equivalent to praying for some months.  I also just recently learnt that fasting on the first ten days of the month of Hajj is like fasting for a year.  People tend to miss prayers etc. when they are still young when it is compulsory. 

Acquiring knowledge is very important as it is the tool we can use to help secure ākhirah.  And I believe Nabi Sallallāhu Alaihi Wa Sallam left us with paths to help.  My question is that can these types of special Salāts and fasts count as replacements for the ones we have missed in the past or are they simply invalid with or without our knowledge? 

It is said that if our prayers are incomplete, Allah out of His Mercy accepts voluntary Salāts to complete the missing or invalid compulsory ones.  Can the same be said for fasting?

Answer

In the Name of Allah, the Most Gracious, the Most Merciful.

As-salāmu ‘alaykum wa-rahmatullāhi wa-barakātuh.

Allah Taālā through His infinite mercy and love has created mankind in the best of forms and arranged for his needs throughout the various stages of life.  The blessings of Allāh Taālā are enjoyed by His creation at all times.  The one who acknowledges the bounties of Allāh Taālā and submits himself to Allāh’s commands has indeed succeeded.

Allāh Taālā has ordained upon the believing men and women certain commands such as Salāh.  Hence, the performance of five times daily Salāh on time is an obligation on every Muslim commencing from the time of puberty, the failing of which is a great sin and open ingratitude. However, in a situation where one prayer or many prayers were not performed in their respective times, it is compulsory to compensate by performing them later, regardless of whether the prayers were missed intentionally or unintentionally. [1]

In the books of Ahādīth, there are narrations that indicate Salāh in certain places is more virtuous then in others.  Nabi Sallallāhu Alaihi Wa Sallam has stated:

 

“Salāh in my Masjid (Masjid An-Nabawī) is better than one thousand Salāts performed anywhere else except Masjid Al-Harām”

(Sahīh Al-Bukhāri, Hadīth No. 1190: Dāru Tauq An-Najāh) [2]

With regards to the meaning of such Ahādīth wherein the multiplication of rewards for each Salāh is mentioned, the scholars agree that this is in relation to the rewards of Salāh and not the obligation of Salāh.  In other words, if an individual has to make up missed prayers, the performance of only one Salāh in Masjid An-Nabawī will not suffice. [3]

Furthermore, it is also mentioned in narrations that Nawāfil (optional prayers) make up for the deficiencies in Farāidh (obligatory prayers).  It is stated in a narration:

“The deficiencies of the Fardh(mandatory) prayers are completed through optional prayers” (Sunan At-Tirmidhi, Hadīth No. 413) [4]

With regards to the meanings of this Hadīth, the scholars have various opinions.  A famous opinion is that the Nawāfil will compensate for the quality of the Farāidh and not the missed Farāidh themselves.  However, there is another opinion that the Nawāfil will suffice for the missed Farāidh. [5] [6]  Nevertheless, even if we consider the Nawāfil to be sufficient for the missed Farāidh, we don’t know how many Nawāfil will compensate for one Fardh.  Possibly it will take seven hundred Nawāfil to equal one Fardh.  Therefore the scholors have not permitted negligence in making up the missed Farāidh, relying solely on Nawāfil. [7]  However, we should be particular in performing Nawāfil as Allāh Taālā’s mercy knows no bounds. 

The same law applies in regards to other commandments such as fasting etc.   

And Allah Ta’āla Knows Best

Mawlana Abdul Azeem bin Abdur Rahman,
Student Darul Iftaa
US

 

Checked and Approved by,
Mufti Husain Kadodia.
www.daruliftaa.net



[1]  كُلُّ صَلَاةٍ فَاتَتْ عَنْ الْوَقْتِ بَعْدَ وُجُوبِهَا فِيهِ يَلْزَمُهُ قَضَاؤُهَا سَوَاءٌ تَرَكَ عَمْدًا أَوْ سَهْوًا أَوْ بِسَبَبِ نَوْمٍ وَسَوَاءٌ كَانَتْ الْفَوَائِتُ كَثِيرَةً أَوْ قَلِيلَةً (الفتاوي الهندية, ج 1, ص121: مكتبة رشيدية)

[2]  حَدَّثَنَا عَبْدُ اللَّهِ بْنُ يُوسُفَ، قَالَ: أَخْبَرَنَا مَالِكٌ، عَنْ زَيْدِ بْنِ رَبَاحٍ، وَعُبَيْدِ اللَّهِ بْنِ أَبِي عَبْدِ اللَّهِ الأَغَرِّ، عَنْ أَبِي عَبْدِ اللَّهِ الأَغَرِّ، عَنْ أَبِي هُرَيْرَةَ رَضِيَ اللَّهُ عَنْهُ: أَنَّ النَّبِيَّ صَلَّى اللهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ قَالَ: صَلاَةٌ فِي مَسْجِدِي هَذَا خَيْرٌ مِنْ أَلْفِ صَلاَةٍ فِيمَا سِوَاهُ، إِلَّا المَسْجِدَ الحَرَامَ (صحيح البخاري, رقم الحديث 1190: دار طوق النجاة (مصورة عن السلطانية بإضافة ترقيم ترقيم محمد فؤاد عبد الباقي)

[3]  ثُمَّ إِنَّ التَّضْعِيفَ الْمَذْكُورَ يَرْجِعُ إِلَى الثَّوَابِ وَلَا يَتَعَدَّى إِلَى الْإِجْزَاءِ بِاتِّفَاقِ الْعُلَمَاءِ كَمَا نَقَلَهُ النَّوَوِيُّ وَغَيْرُهُ فَلَوْ كَانَ عَلَيْهِ صَلَاتَانِ فَصَلَّى فِي أَحَدِ الْمَسْجِدَيْنِ صَلَاةً لَمْ تُجْزِهِ إِلَّا عَنْ وَاحِدَةٍ وَاللَّهُ أَعْلَمُ

(فتح الباري شرح صحيح البخاري, ج 3, ص 80: دار الحديث)

[4]  حَدَّثَنَا عَلِيُّ بْنُ نَصْرِ بْنِ عَلِيٍّ الجَهْضَمِيُّ قَالَ: حَدَّثَنَا سَهْلُ بْنُ حَمَّادٍ قَالَ: حَدَّثَنَا هَمَّامٌ، قَالَ: حَدَّثَنِي قَتَادَةُ، عَنْ الحَسَنِ، عَنْ حُرَيْثِ بْنِ قَبِيصَةَ، قَالَ: قَدِمْتُ المَدِينَةَ، فَقُلْتُ: اللَّهُمَّ يَسِّرْ لِي جَلِيسًا صَالِحًا، قَالَ فَجَلَسْتُ إِلَى أَبِي هُرَيْرَةَ، فَقُلْتُ: إِنِّي سَأَلْتُ اللَّهَ أَنْ يَرْزُقَنِي جَلِيسًا صَالِحًا، فَحَدِّثْنِي بِحَدِيثٍ سَمِعْتَهُ مِنْ رَسُولِ اللَّهِ صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ لَعَلَّ اللَّهَ أَنْ يَنْفَعَنِي بِهِ، فَقَالَ: سَمِعْتُ رَسُولَ اللَّهِ صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ يَقُولُ: " إِنَّ أَوَّلَ مَا يُحَاسَبُ بِهِ العَبْدُ يَوْمَ القِيَامَةِ مِنْ عَمَلِهِ صَلَاتُهُ، فَإِنْ صَلُحَتْ فَقَدْ أَفْلَحَ وَأَنْجَحَ، وَإِنْ فَسَدَتْ فَقَدْ خَابَ وَخَسِرَ، فَإِنْ انْتَقَصَ مِنْ فَرِيضَتِهِ شَيْءٌ، قَالَ الرَّبُّ عَزَّ وَجَلَّ: انْظُرُوا هَلْ لِعَبْدِي مِنْ تَطَوُّعٍ فَيُكَمَّلَ بِهَا مَا انْتَقَصَ مِنَ الفَرِيضَةِ، ثُمَّ يَكُونُ سَائِرُ عَمَلِهِ عَلَى ذَلِكَ "، وَفِي البَابِ عَنْ تَمِيمٍ الدَّارِيِّ،: «حَدِيثُ أَبِي هُرَيْرَةَ حَدِيثٌ حَسَنٌ غَرِيبٌ مِنْ هَذَا الوَجْهِ

(سنن الترمذي, رقم الحديث 413: شركة مكتبة ومطبعة مصطفى البابي الحلبي)

[5]  قوله: (فيتكمل بها. . إلخ) اختلفوا في تكافئ النوافل الفرائض، فقيل: لا تكافأها ولو صلى النافلة مدة العمر فمراد الحديث على مشربهم أن النوافل تكافئ ما نقص من دواخل الصلاة، لا أصل الصلاة  وقيل: إنها تكافئ الفريضة ثم في حديث: «أن سبع مائة نافلة تكافئ فريضة واحدة» ، وقال الشيخ عز الدين بن عبد السلام ملك العلماء وهو من كبار الشافعية: إن سياق ما في رواية أخرى أخرجها أبو داود وأن النافلة تكافئ الفريضة فإن فيها ذكر الزكاة أيضاً وليس في الزكاة دواخل من السنن والمستحبات التي تكافئها التطوع.

أقول: يدل حديث الباب في إثبات مرتبة الواجب القائل بها الأحناف (العرف الشذي, ج1, ص 465: دار الكتب العلمية)

[6]  (فتكملون بها فريضته ثم الزكاة كذلك ثم تؤخذ الأعمال على حسب ذلك) قال الحافظ العراقي: المراد من الإكمال إكمال ما انتقص من السنن والهيئات المشروعة وأنه يحصل له ثوابه في الفرض وإن لم يفعله أو ما انتقص من فروضها وشروطها أو ما ترك من الفرائض رأسا (فيض القدير, ج 3, ص 124: دار الكتب العلمية)

[7] Aap Ke Masāil Aur Un Kā Hal, Vol. 2, Page 413-414; Maktebah Ludhyānwī

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