Assalāmualaikum Mufti Saheb. I have heard for example that if a man has four children and one of his children passes away before the man dies, then that deceased child will not inherit nor will his heirs inherit. Can you please provide the relevant Hadīth on this and also explain the Hikmah behind this ruling? JazākAllāhu Khaira.
In the Name of Allah, the Most Gracious, the Most Merciful.
As-salāmu ‘alaykum wa-rahmatullāhi wa-barakātuh.
We understand from the query that the son has passed away before the deceased father’s death. And the question is regarding the son who has passed away. Why does he not inherit?
In principle, only those heirs who are alive at the time of the deceased one’s death will inherit. The reason for this is quite obvious. When the one entitled to a share is not present then there is no reason for allotting him a share.
With regards to the deceased son’s heirs (sons and daughters who are in fact the deceased one’s grandchildren), they will not inherit if their father (the deceased son) is alive.   However if their father (the deceased son) has passed away, then there is a possibility they will inherit. Therefore there should be no confusion remaining.
And Allah Ta’āla Knows Best
Mawlana Abdul Azeem bin Abdur Rahman,
Student Darul Iftaa
Checked and Approved by,
Mufti Husain Kadodia.