Category: History
Fatwa#: 18609
Asked Country: South Africa

Answered Date: Apr 22,2010

Title: Is the book Kitab-ul-fitan by Shk Nu'aim bin Hummad authentic? Also, I read at http://www.muftisays.com/archive/topic/hanafi-fiqh/2179/, that nuaim bin hammad attacked Imam abu hanifa (RA) and fabricated stories about him. ..

Question

Is the book Kitab-ul-fitan by Shk Nu'aim bin Hummad authentic?  Also, I read at http://www.muftisays.com/archive/topic/hanafi-fiqh/2179/, that nuaim bin hammad attacked Imam abu hanifa (RA) and fabricated stories about him.   If this is true, why did he attack the great imam?  Did he repent later on ? Is nuaim bin hammad a reliable scholar and can we read the above mentioned book?  Please reply at the earliest.

Answer

In the name of Allāh, Most Gracious, Most Merciful


Assalāmu ῾alaykum wa Rahmatullāhi Wabarakātuh

 

Nu`aym ibn ammād رحمه الله تعالي

 

His full name was Abu Abdillāh Nu`aym ibn ammād ibn Mu`āwiyah al-khuzā`ī al-marwazī. He studied in Irāq and ijāz and settled in Egypt. He studied hadīth under many `ulamā from amongst whom are: Abu Hamzah as-Sukkarī, Abu Bakr ibn `Ayyāsh, af ibn Ghiyāth, ibn `Uyaynah, al-Fal ibn Mūsa, Abū Dāwūd al-Tiyālisī, Abdullāh ibn Mubārak and others رحمهم الله تعالي.

 

From amongst his students are: Muammad ibn Ismā`il al-Bukhārī, Yayah ibn Ma`īn, Abu ātim ar-Rāzī, Abu Zur`ah ad-Dimashqī and others رحمهم الله تعالي.

 

Nu`aym رحمه الله تعالي is considered to be the first person to compile a musnad.

 

His aadīth are narrated in all the six famous books of adīth besides Nasa`i. Imām Bukhārī رحمه الله تعالي narrates from him a narration or two in his celebrated al-Jāmi’ as-aīh and also a few متابعات. Imām Muslim رحمه الله تعالي narrates from him via al-asan al-alwāni رحمه الله تعالي in the introduction of his aī.

 

فتح الباري - ابن حجر - (1 / 667) دار مصر

خ م د ت ق - نعيم بن حماد الخزاعي المروزي نزيل مصر مشهور من الحفاظ الكبار لقيه البخاري ولكنه لم يخرج عنه في الصحيح سوى موضع أو موضعين وعلق له أشياء أخر وروى له مسلم في المقدمة موضعا واحدا وأصحاب السنن إلا النسائي

 

 

Mawlānā Shabbīr Ahmad `Uthmānī رحمه الله تعالي mentions: those scholars who have used harsh words against Imām Abū anīfah رحمه الله تعالي , we should only think good regarding them as a believer is jealous (ghayyūr) and sincere in his intentions. When he is informed of something which seems to be contradicting the sunnah and destroying dīn (even though in reality it is not so) then his jealousy for dīn overtakes him causing him to get angry for the pleasure of Allāh Ta`ālā. Thus, resulting in him using harsh words in defence of the dīn. An example of this is Imām Muslim رحمه الله تعالي using strong words against Imām Bukhārī رحمه الله تعالي in his muqaddimah. Most commentators have preferred the view of Imām Bukhārī رحمه الله تعالي but they did not criticise Imām Muslim رحمه الله تعالي for using harsh words. (Shaykh Abdul Fattā رحمه الله تعالي mentions in his footnote on the above that the correct view is that Imām Muslim رحمه الله تعالي intended to refute `Alī ibn Madīnī رحمه الله تعالي) (al-Intiqā’ fi faailil aimmatil fuqahā’ 272 with reference to Fatul Mulhim 1/73)

 

Dūlābi and Abul Fat al-Azdī رحمهما الله تعالي narrates that Nu`aym رحمه الله تعالي used to fabricate narrations to strengthen the sunnah and he also used to fabricate incidents defaming Imām Abū anīfah رحمه الله تعالي all of which are false. 

 

Ibn `Adī رحمه الله تعالي comments that this cannot be accepted from Dūlābī رحمه الله تعالي as Dūlābī was from the ahlur ra’y whilst Nu`aym رحمه الله تعالي was oppose to them. Ibn ajar رحمه الله تعالي reviews this statement of Ibn `Adī and says that Ibn `Adī was mistaken in criticising Dūlābi. The fact of the matter is that both Dūlābī and Abul Fat al-Azdī رحمهما الله تعالي are narrating from unknown scholars. Dūlābī narrates with the words “others say” whilst Abul Fat uses the words “they say”. Therefore, we cannot accept their statements against Nu`aym as his (Nu`aym’s) `adālah (authenticity) has been established even though he has some awhām (mistakes).

 

Since Nu`aym رحمه الله تعالي is a narrator of Bukhārī, therefore Ibn Hajar رحمه الله تعالي tries to defend him. Mawlānā Abdur Rashīd Nu’mānī رحمه الله تعالي says that it is possible that Ibn ajar رحمه الله تعالي was unaware what Nu`aym رحمه الله تعالي said regarding Imām Abū anīfah therefore he tries to defend him. Furthermore, the criticism against Nu`aym رحمه الله تعالي will not fall away with the excuse of afi رحمه الله تعالي. Dūlābī and Abul Fat al-Azdī رحمهما الله تعالي are both great Imām’s of al-jar wat ta’dīl (authentication and criticism). They are quoting their shuyūkh. They will not quote somebody unknown in their criticism.  (al-Imām Ibn Mājah wa kitābuhus Sunan 98)

 

He was imprisoned in the year 223a.h. or 224a.h. due to the issue regarding the Noble Qurān being created or not and passed away in prison. Some scholars have recorded his demise in the year 228a.h. whilst other mentioned 229a.h.

سير أعلام النبلاء - (10 / 610)

قال أحمد بن محمد بن سهل الخالدي: سمعت أبا بكر الطرسوسي يقول: أخذ نعيم بن حماد في أيام المحنة سنة ثلاث أو أربع وعشرين ومئتين، وألقوه في السجن، ومات في سنة تسع وعشرين ومئتين، وأوصى أن يدفن في قيوده

 

Although outwardly it seemed that he had a very bad death but he holds very lofty stages in the sight of Allah Ta’ala. Nabi صلي الله عليه وسلم said:

سنن الترمذي - (4 / 471) مصطفى البابي الحلبي

 2174 - حدثنا القاسم بن دينار الكوفي حدثنا عبد الرحمن بن مصعب أبو يزيد حدثنا إسرائيل عن محمد بن جحادة عن عطية عن أبي سعيد الخدري : أن النبي صلى الله عليه و سلم قال إن من أعظم الجهاد كلمة عدل عند سلطان جائر

 قال أبو عيسى وفي الباب عن ابي أمامة وهذا حديث حسن غريب من هذا الوجه

 

The best jihād is proclaiming the truth in front of an oppressive ruler. (Tirmidhi 2174)

 

Regarding his book al-fitan, Allāmah adh-Dhahabī رحمه الله تعالى has comments by saying:

 

سير أعلام النبلاء - (10 / 609) مؤسسة الرسالة

وقد صنف كتاب " الفتن " فأتى فيه بعجائب ومناكير.

 

“He was authored a book named “al-fitan” and has mentioned a lot of strange and unauthentic narrations”. (As-Siyar 10/609 Muassasatur Risālah)

 

تهذيب التهذيب 10/409 دار الكتب العلميه

سير اعلام النبلاء 10/595 مؤسسة الرسالة

 

And Allāh Ta῾āla Knows Best
Wassalāmu ῾alaykum

 

Mufti  Ishaq Moosa
Checked and Approved by:

 

Mufti Ebrahim Desai
Dārul Iftā, Madrasah In῾āmiyyah

 

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