Fatwa: # 18524
Category: History and Biography
Country: South Africa
Date: 28th February 2010


Why dont the Shias believe Abu Bakr (RA) should be the Caliph?



shia do not consider Hazrat Abu Bakr as legitimate and right candidate for Khilafat. Because it is only Allah or the Prophet who can appoint a khalifa. they deny and condemn the election process. . Even the election process was controversial. Ali as never approved his as legitimate Khalifa nor many other sahabas. Hazrat Umar himself said that Bayat of Abu Bakr was like bayate nagahani and whoever does it again in future then kill him.


Bukhari :: Book 5 :: Volume 57 :: Hadith 61


Narrated Al-Miswar bin Makhrama: Allah's Apostle said, "Fatima is a part of me, and he who makes her angry, makes me angry." Now look at this tradition…


Bukhari :: Book 4 :: Volume 53 :: Hadith 325


Narrated 'Aisha: (mother of the believers) After the death of Allah 's Apostle Fatima the daughter of Allah's Apostle asked Abu Bakr As-Siddiq to give her, her share of inheritance from what Allah's Apostle had left of the Fai (i.e. booty gained without fighting) which Allah had given him. Abu Bakr said to her, "Allah's Apostle said, 'Our property will not be inherited, whatever we (i.e. prophets) leave is Sadaqa (to be used for charity)." Fatima, the daughter of Allah's Apostle got angry and stopped speaking to Abu Bakr, and continued assuming that attitude till she died. Fatima remained alive for six months after the death of Allah's Apostle.


In the name of Allāh, Most Gracious, Most Merciful

Assalāmu ῾alaykum wa Rahmatullāhi Wabarakātuh


All praise is due unto Allah Ta’ala. We praise Him, rely upon Him, seek His help and beg His forgiveness. We seek refuge in Allah Ta’ala from the evil within ourselves; and from our evil deeds. Whomsoever Allah Ta’ala has guided none can mislead, and whom He causes to go astray none can lead aright. We bear witness that none is worthy of worship besides Allah Ta’ala; and we bear witness that Muhammad (Sallallahu Alaihi Wasallam) is the servant and messenger of Allah Ta’ala.

In today’s times the media and propaganda have reached such levels of presenting utter falsehood as truth, it becomes virtually impossible for the layman to distinguish right from wrong. There is a widespread of books, pamphlets, journals and many other such material, which are used to propogate Shi’ism.


The three issues under discussion are:


1.       The bay’at of Hazrat Umar, Uthmaan and Ali (Radiallaahu Anhum) to Hazrat Abu Bakr (Radiallaahu Anhu).

2.      The authentic view as to why Hazrat Fathima (Radiallaahu Anha) remained silent.

3.      The marriage of Umme kulthum (Radiallaahu Anha), the daughter of Ali (Radiallaahu Anhu) to Hazrat Umar (Radiallaahu Anhu)

Shortly before the demise of Rasulullah (Sallallahu Alaihi Wasallam), whilst on His deathbed and  in the masjid adjoining His house, He could hear the Muslims  being led in salah by his confidante and lifelong friend Abu Bakr (radhiallaahu anhu). It was Rasulullah (Sallallahu Alaihi Wasallam)  himself who had insisted upon Abu Bakr (radhiallaahu anhu) to be their Imaam in salah. Nabi (Sallalahu Alaihi Wasallam) passed away, having expressed His contentment with His companions and being led in the salah by His own appointee, Abu Bakr as-Siddîq (Radiallahu anhu).

After the demise of Rasoolullah (Sallallaahu Alayhi Wasallam), Abu Bakr (Radhiallaahu Anhu) and Umar (Radhiallaahu Anhu) with the majority of the Ansaar and the Muhajireen, were busy with the burial arrangements. On the other hand a few Ansaar Sahabah (Radhiallaahu Anhum) gathered with Saad Bin Ubaadah (Radhiallaahu Anhu) at Saqeefa Bani Saaidah. Their intention was to appoint Saad Bin Ubaadah (Radhiallaahu Anhu) as the Khalifah. Seeing this, one Sahabi immediately headed for the house of Rasoolullah (Sallallaahu Alayhi Wasallam) and asked Umar (Radhiallaahu Anhu), who was at that time busy with  burial arrangements, to step outside the house. At first Umar (Radhiallaahu Anhu) refused to come out due to his engrossment, but when the Sahabi informed him of the importance, Umar (Radhiallaahu Anhu) came outside. On hearing this Umar (Radhiallaahu Anhu) immediately called Abu Bakr (Radhiallaahu Anhu), who was also busy with the burial arrangements and refused to come out. When Umar (Radhiallaahu Anhu) informed him of the importance of the issue, he immediately headed for Saqeefa Bani Saaidah together with Umar (Radhiallaahu Anhu) and Abu Ubaidah ibnul Jarrah (Radhiallaahu Anhu).

This makes it very clear that Abu Bakr (Radhiallaahu Anhu) and Umar (Radhiallaahu Anhu) did not take any initial steps in trying to attain the Khilaafat; rather, they were busy in the burial arrangements. The message had reached them via one of the sahaba as he was merely informing them as to what was happening.

Abu Bakr (Radhiallaahu Anhu) took Umar (Radhiallaahu Anhu) and Abu Ubaidah ibnul Jarrah (Radhiallaahu Anhu) with him (these three Sahabah are from amongst the ‘Ashara Mubash sharah i.e. the ten companions who were given glad-tidings of Jannah in this world by Nabi (Sallallaahu Alaihi Wasallam)). Hazrat Abu Bakr (Radhiallaahu Anhu) did not take Ali (Radhiallaahu Anhu) and Zubair (Radhiallaahu Anhu) with him because they were the immediate relatives of Nabi (Sallallaahu Alaihi Wasallam) and it was more appropriate for them to remain engaged in the burial arrangements. 

Umar (Radhiallaahu Anhu) mentioned in detail during his Khilaafat that Abu Bakr (Radhiallaahu Anhu) went to Saqeefa Bani Saaidah in order to clarify and explain to the Ansaar.  He did not know that in the interim he would have the responsibility of appointing a Khalifah.  This is also the reason why he did not take Ali (Radhiallaahu Anhu) with him.  When these three Sahabah reached Saqeefa Bani Saaidah they saw that the Ansaar were in a very emotional state and were about to appoint Sa’ad bin Ubaadah (Radhiallaahu Anhu) as the Khalifah.  For this reason Abu Bakr (Radhiallaahu Anhu) stepped forward and explained to them with great wisdom that the Khalifah should be from amongst the Quraish because the entire Arab world respects them.  After this Abu Bakr (Radhiallaahu Anhu) raised the hands of Umar (Radhiallaahu Anhu) and Abu Ubaidah ibnul Jarrah (Radhiallaahu Anhu) in front of the congregation and requested them to take Bay’at on the hands of either of the two. The Ansaar did not agree to this but they demanded that there should be an Ameer from amongst the Ansaar as well.  On this occasion Umar (Radhiallaahu Anhu) said: “Two swords can not be gathered in one sheath.”  When Umar (Radhiallaahu Anhu) saw that the differences were not settling and the arguing was not coming to an end, he made Abu Bakr (Radhiallaahu Anhu) ascend the pulpit and declared that he is taking Bay’at on the hands of Abu Bakr (Radhiallaahu Anhu). Before Umar (Radhiallaahu Anhu) could take Bay’at, an Ansaari Sahabi took Bay’at on the hands of Abu Bakr (Radhiallaahu Anhu). On seeing this all the Muhajireen and Ansaar that were present also took Bay’at on the hands of Abu Bakr (Radhiallaahu Anhu) except Sa’ad bin Ubaadah (Radhiallaahu Anhu). When proving that Abu Bakr (Radhiallaahu Anhu) is worthy of Khilaafat, Umar (Radhiallaahu Anhu) mentioned that “Nabi (Sallallaahu Alaihi Wasallam) forwarded Abu Bakr to lead the Salaat during his lifetime and he is the companion of Nabi (Sallallaahu Alaihi Wasallam) in the cave.  How can Umar become the Khalifah whilst he is present?”  Abu Ubaidah ibnul Jarrah (Radhiallaahu Anhu) said the same thing.  In this manner, those Ansaar who wanted to appoint Sa’ad bin Ubaadah (Radhiallaahu Anhu) as the Khalifah, also willingly took the Bay’at on the hands of Abu Bakr (Radhiallaahu Anhu).

Ali (Radhiallaahu Anhu) and other Muhaajir Sahabah did not take part in this Bay’at because they were engaged in the burial arrangements of Rasoolullah (Sallallaahu Alaihi Wasallam) and they did not even know what transpired outside the house. One cannot say that Ali (Radhiallaahu Anhu) and other Muhaajir Sahabah’s failure to take the Bay’at was because they disagreed with it, rather this is the reason why those Sahabah who were not present at the time of the Bay’at were not taunted.  A general Majlis took place the following day in the Masjid-un-Nabawi for everybody to take the Bay’at so that nobody could raise any objection to Abu Bakr (Radhiallaahu Anhu) being the Khalifah and that he did this in secret. 

On the following day Abu Bakr (Radhiallaahu Anhu) sat on the mimbar in the Masjid-un-Nabawi and Umar (Radhiallaahu Anhu) stood in front of the Sahabah and said a few words and also excused himself for what he had said on hearing of the demise of Rasoolullah (Sallallaahu Alaihi Wasallam). He further said that: “Rasoolullah (Sallallaahu Alaihi Wasallam) has passed away and you have the Qur’an with you.”  Umar (Radhiallaahu Anhu) then pointed towards Abu Bakr (Radhiallaahu Anhu) and mentioned his virtues and that he is more worthy of Khilaafat and everybody should take Bay’at on his hands.  All the Sahabah present in the Masjid took Bay’at on the hands of Abu Bakr (Radhiallaahu Anhu) and this was known as the general Bay’at.  At the time of this Bay’at two very important and famous Sahabah, i.e. Ali (Radhiallaahu Anhu) and Zubair (Radhiallaahu Anhu) were not present.  Hazrat Abu Bakr (Radhiallaahu Anhu) enquired of their whereabouts.  A few Sahabah of the Ansaar stood up and called Ali (Radhiallaahu Anhu) and Zubair (Radhiallaahu Anhu) to the Masjid.  When these two Sahabah (Radhiallaahu Anhu) arrived at the Masjid, Abu Bakr (Radhiallaahu Anhu) asked Ali (Radhiallaahu Anhu): “Why haven’t you taken Bay’at inspite of you being the cousin and son in-law of Rasoolullah (Sallallaahu Alaihi Wasallam)? Do you wish to cause disunity amongst the Muslims?”  On hearing this Ali (Radhiallaahu Anhu) excused himself “and took Bay’at willingly “on the hands of Abu Bakr (Radhiallaahu Anhu).  Then Abu Bakr (Radhiallaahu Anhu) asked Zubair (Radhiallaahu Anhu) the same question and also asked him that:  “Inspite of being the cousin of Rasoolullah (Sallallaahu Alaihi Wasallam) and a Hawaari, do you wish to create disunity amongst the Muslims?”  He too excused himself and took Bay’at on the hands of Abu Bakr (Radhiallaahu Anhu).

It has been narrated in the Shiite book “Ihtijaaj Tabrasi” that Ali (Radhiallaahu Anhu) took Bay’at on the hands of Abu Bakr (Radhiallaahu Anhu) and also performed Salaat behind him.

Concerning the issue of Abu Bakr (Radhiallaahu Anhu) depriving Fathima (Radhiallaahu Anha) from her inheritance, as usual it is one of the concocted views of the Shias and holds no basis. Infact, Abu Bakr (Radhiallaahu Anhu) had also denied inheritance to his own daughter, Aa’isha (Radhiallaahu Anha) and the daughter of Umar (Radhiallaahu Anhu), Hafsah (Radhiallaahu Anha), both of whom were the wives of Rasulullah (Sallallahu Alaihi Wasallam) and were entitled to a share left behind by Him. For a person to believe that Fathima (Radhiallaahu Anha) got angry and stopped speaking to Abu Bakr (Radhiallaahu Anhu) till she passed away and to interpret the meaning of the Ahaadeeth suiting one’s whims and fancies is inappropriate. It is shying away from the truth.

Hazrat Fathima (Radhiallaahu Anha) held the highest amount of respect for Abu Bakr (Radhiallaahu Anhu) knowing well his status and calibre not forgetting the close bond with Rasulullah (Sallallahu Alaihi Wasallam). Is it possible that for a monetary issue such an attitude be portrayed by her?

Furtermore, when Hazrat Abu Bakr (Radhuallaahu Anhu) knew that Fathima (Radhiallaahu Anha) was upset about the incident, He went to her house taking an oath that he will not leave until she becomes pleased with him and Fathima (Radhiallaahu Anha) became pleased with him. Some scholars explain that what is meant by her not speaking to Abu Bakr (radhiallaahu Anhu) is concerning this matter of inheritance i.e. She did not bring the topic into discussion as this chapter was terminated and the matter was mutually understood by both.

(Jaamiu Saheeh Al Bukhari, Vol 3-4, Pg 256, Daarul Fikr)

(Kitaabul Muwaafaqah, Minhaaju Saalikeen,MadaarijunNubuwwat)


If a person is still in doubt as to what the truth really is then consider this eye opening episode regarding the marriage of Umar (Radhiallaahu Anhu) to Umme Kulthoom (Radhiallaahu Anha) the daughter of Ali (Radhiallaahu Anhu). This marriage has infact worried the Shias and cornered them between a rock and a hard place. Hazrat Umme Kulthoom (Radhiallaahu Anha)  lived with Umar (Radhiallaahu Anhu) as his wife and even gave birth to a son from him. This proves that Ali (Radhiallaahu Anhu) was satisfied with him being a believer and being the husband to his daughter and the grand daughter of Nabi (Sallallahu Alaihi Wasallam). Hazrat Ali (Radhiallaahu Anhu) had such cordial relations with Umar (Radhiallaahu Anhu) that it lead to this marriage. The allegation of forced marriage to Umme kulthoom (Radhiallaahu Anha) flies in the face of one who claims that Ali (Radhiallaahu Anhu) was the lion of Allah Ta’ala. Will Ali (Radhiallaahu Anhu) submit to oppression and co-ersion.

It is our duty to mention the Sahabah in a respectful manner and do not have hatred and prejudice for any Sahabi and inculcate love for all the Sahabah.  To love them is a sign of Imaan and to hate them is hypocrisy. 


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(Tuhfa Ithna Ashariyah)

(Mufti Muhammad Ashraf Jameah Mahmoodiyah, Springs)

If you wish to acquire a complete understanding of Shi’ism, we advise you to purchase a book called, KHOMEINI IRANIAN REVOLUTION and the SHI’ITE FAITH by Maulana Mohammad Manzoor Nomani.


And Allāh Ta῾āla Knows Best

Wassalāmu ῾alaykum 


Ml. Ebrahim Desai,
Student Dārul Iftā


Checked and Approved by:

Mufti Ebrahim Desai
Dārul Iftāa

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