1.A father wants to give 1/3 of his property to his 2 daughters as gift. Then again he wants
to make a will giving 2 daugthers equal to one son . Is that permissiable ?
2. Bangladesh Govt. is planning to introduce a law that will force fathers to give equal share to daughters in property like sons . What about this law , will it contradicts Quran and Sunnah ?
In the name of Allāh, Most Gracious, Most Merciful
Assalāmu ῾alaykum wa Rahmatullāhi Wabarakātuh
1) Regarding a father giving one third of his property to his two daughters as a gift, two possibilities arise:
However, when gifting one’s children, it is important to maintain equality between all of them, both sons and daughters. This lesson has been masterfully conveyed to us by the best of all teachers, Rasulullah (sallallāhu ‘alayhi wa sallam), in a hadīth mentioned by Imam Bukhārī (r.a.):
Nu‘mān ibn Basheer once narrated a story whilst on the pulpit. He mentioned that his father intended to give him a gift despite having other children whom would not receive a similar gift. When his father requested the Messenger of Allah (sallallāhu ‘alayhi wa sallam) to witness the gifting, the Prophet (sallallāhu ‘alayhi wa sallam) asked, “Did you also present your remaining children with a similar gift?” His father replied in the negative. The Prophet (sallallāhu ‘alayhi wa sallam) then responded:
فَاتَّقُوا اللَّهَ ، وَاعْدِلُوا بَيْنَ أَوْلاَدِكُمْ. قَالَ: فَرَجَعَ فَرَدَّ عَطِيَّتَهُ. و في رواية لمسلم قَالَ: فَلاَ تُشْهِدْنِى إِذًا فَإِنِّى لاَ أَشْهَدُ عَلَى جَوْرٍ.
“Fear Allah and observe equality amongst your children.” In another narration mentioned my Imām Muslim, he said, “Do not call me to witness this gifting. Indeed, I do not bear witness to inequality.” Thereafter, Nu‘mān’s father, Basheer, returned the gift to its original owner. –Bukhārī and Muslim
Therefore, unless there is some compelling reason, one should avoid favoring one or some children over the others in matters of gifting. This principle is irrespective of the gender of the child as the hadīth stated that the Prophet (sallallāhu ‘alayhi wa sallam) ordered for equality amongst our children in general, not sons or daughters specifically. This differs from the issue of inheritance which, insha Allah, will be clarified later in the response.
إِنَّ اللَّهَ قَدْ أَعْطَى كُلَّ ذِى حَقٍّ حَقَّهُ فَلاَ وَصِيَّةَ لِوَارِثٍ
“Indeed, Allah has given every deserving person (heir) an allotted amount [of inheritance]. Therefore,
there will be no bequeathing [additional wealth] upon an heir.” -Tirmidhī
Consequently, since a daughter is already an heir, she will not be allowed to receive any additional wealth beyond her allotted share of inheritance if her father is in his final stages of life (maradh al-mawt).
In all cases including the two mentioned above, two daughters will receive the share equivalent to that of one son when the deceased person has both a living daughter and son.
2) Allah explicitly states in the Holy Qur’an:
يُوصِيكُمُ اللَّهُ فِي أَوْلادِكُمْ لِلذَّكَرِ مِثْلُ حَظِّ الأنْثَيَيْنِ
“Allah directs you in regards to your children’s (inheritance). For every male shall be the portion of two females. ” –Sūrah al-Nisā’: 11
Therefore, any law which imposes that a daughter must inherit an equal amount as a son will be contrary to the teachings of the Qur’an and Sunnah.
And Allāh Ta῾āla Knows Best
Ml. Musa Sugapong,
Student Dārul Iftā
Checked and Approved by:
Mufti Ebrahim Desai
Dārul Iftā, Madrasah In῾āmiyyah
Visit us at:
http://www.al-inaam.com [ Madrasah In῾āmiyyah ]
http://www.askimam.org [ Dārul Iftā - Madrasah In῾āmiyyah ]
http://groups.google.com/group/shariahcompliant [Shari῾ah Compliant Business Campaign]
http://groups.yahoo.com/group/shifaa [As-Shifā` Islamic Forum]
http://groups.yahoo.com/group/ulama_sa [Ulamā-SA Islamic Forum]
DISCLAIMER - Askimam.org questions
The Askimam.org Site answers issues pertaining to Shariah. Thereafter these questions and answers are placed for public view on www.askimam.org for educational purposes. However, many of these answers are unique to a particular scenario and can not be taken as a basis to establish a ruling in another situation or another environment. To ensure this Askimam.org will start to flag such questions. Previous questions on Askimam.org do not carry such cautionary message. Askimam.org bears no responsibility with regards to these questions being used out of their intended context.
· The Shar῾ī ruling herein given is specifically based on the question posed and should be read in conjunction with the question.
· The Dārul Ifta bears no responsibility to any party who may or may not act on this answer. The Dārul Iftā being hereby exempted from loss or damage howsoever caused.
· This answer may not be used as evidence in any Court of Law without prior written consent of the Dārul Iftā.
· Any or all links provided in our emails, answers and articles are restricted to the specific material being cited.Such referencing should not be taken as an endorsement of other contents of that website.