Fatwa: # 18042
Category: Food
Country: United Kingdom
Date: 13th June 2009

Title

I got a list of ingredients in ready food saying Haraam. I want to be sure are they really Haraam or not. Is there any more ingredients that haraam in the food of western contries.

Question

Assalamu'alaikum wa rahmatullah

I got a list of ingredients in ready food saying Haraam. I want to be sure are they really Haraam or not. Is there any more ingredients that haraam in the food of western contries.

the list is bellow:

 

 

Gelatine

E110

E336

E477

Rennet

E120

E422

E478

Glycine

E140

E430

E481

Leucine

E141

E431

E482

Oxysleorin

E153

E432

E483

Spermareli

E210

E433

E491

Gpermareli

E214

E434

E492

Glycerol

E216

E435

E493

Pepsin

E234

E436

E494

 

E252

E440

E495

 

E270

E470

E542

 

E280

E471

E570

 

E325

E472

E572

 

E326

E473

E631

 

E327

E474

E635

 

E334

E475

E901

 

E335

E476

 

 

 

Jajhakallah Khair

Muttalib, London

Answer

In the name of Allah, Most Gracious, Most Merciful


Assalaamu `alaykum waRahmatullahi Wabarakatuh

 

Most “E-number” ingredients are halaal for consummation. However, there are a few which are outright haraam since they are always derived from animal source. The following should be avoided:

E-120 Cochineal: a red color obtained from female insects
E-441 Gelatin: derived from the bones and/ or hides of cattle and/ or pigs
E-542 Edible Bone Phosphate: an extract from animal bones
E-904 Shellac: Insect secretion

There are many “E-number” ingredients which are also considered mashbuh (questionable) and must be checked on an individual basis since the raw material may either be derived from animal or plant and vegetable sources. The list is as follows:

  • E1405 (Enzyme Treated Starch)
  • E1423 (Acetylated Distarch Glycerol)
  • E1430 (Distarch Glycerine)
  • E1441 (Hydroxy Propyl Distarch Glycerine)
  • E1443 (Hydroxy Propyl Starch Glycerol)
  • E1510 (Ethanol)
  • E1517 (Glyceryl Diacetate)
  • E1518 (Glyceryl Triacetate)
  • E153 (Carbon Black)
  • E161(g) (Canthaxanthin)
  • E252 (Potassium Nitrate)
  • E290 (Carbon Dioxide)
  • E334 (L-( )-Tartaric Acid)
  • E335 (Sodium L-( )-tartrate)
  • E336 (Cream of Tartar)
  • E337 (Potassium Sodium L-( )-Tartrate)
  • E353 (Metatartaric Acid)
  • E354 (Calcium Tartrate)
  • E422 (Glycerin)
  • E430 (Polyoxyethylene (8) Stearate)
  • E431 (Polyoxyethylene (40) Stearate)
  • E433 (Tween 80)
  • E435 (Tween 60)
  • E436 (Tween 65)
  • E440(a) (Pectin)
  • E440(b) (Amidated Pectin)
  • E441 (Gelatin)
  • E445 (Glycerol Esters of Wood Rosin)
  • E470 (Sodium, Potassium, & Calcium Salts of Fatty Acids)
  • E470b (Magnesium Salts of Fatty Acids)
  • E471 (Glyceryl Monostearate)
  • E472(a) (Acetoglycerides)
  • E472(b) (Lactoglycerides)
  • E472(c) (Citroglycerides)
  • E472(d) (Tartaric acid glycerol esters)
  • E472(e) (Acetyltartaric acid glycerol esters)
  • E472f (Mixed Acetic & Tartaric Acid Esters of Mono & Digl)
  • E473 (Sucrose Esters of Fatty Acids)
  • E474 (Sucroglycerides)
  • E475 (Polyglycerol Esters of Fatty Acids)
  • E476 (Polyglycerol Polyricinoleate)
  • E477 (Propylene Glycol Esters of Fatty Acids)
  • E478 (Lactylated Fatty Acid Esters)
  • E479b (Thermally oxidized Soya Bean Oil interacted with M)
  • E481 (Sodium Stearoyl-2 lactylate)
  • E482 (Calcium Stearoyl-2-lactylate)
  • E483 (Stearyl Tartrate)
  • E491 (Sorbitan Monostearate)
  • E492 (Sorbitan Tristearate)
  • E494 (Sorbitan Mono-oleate)
  • E542 (Edible Bone Phosphate)
  • E570 (Stearic Acid)
  • E572 (Magnesium Stearate)
  • E630 (Inosinic Acid)
  • E631 (Sodium 5-Inosinate)
  • E632 (Dipotassium Inosinate)
  • E633 (Calcium Inosinate)
  • E634 (Calcium 5-ribonucleotides)
  • E635 (Sodium 5-Ribonucleotide)
  • E640 (Glycine & its Sodium Salt)
  • E910 (L-Cysteine)
  • E915 (Esters of Colophony)
  • E920 (Cysteine Hydrochloride)
  • E921 (L-Cystine)

(Source: SANHA-South African National Halaal Authority)

http://www.sanha.org.za/faq_view.php?question=2009-04-28 15:12:13

http://www.sanha.org.za/view.php?enumber&status=Mushbooh

As far as gelatin is concerned, hereunder is the Shar’ee ruling of the Darul Iftaa (Prepared by Ml. Ishaq Moosa):

Gelatine could be made from either consumable or non-consumable animal bones or hide. The animals could further, either be slaughtered or not. Thus we have a total of eight different scenarios. Below these scenarios have been listed together with their rulings:

 

Consumable Animals

 

Bones

Hide

Slaughtered

Permissible

Permissible

Non-Slaughtered

Permissible 1

Not Permissible

 

Non-Consumable Animals

 

Bones

Hide

Slaughtered

Not Permissible

Not Permissible

Non-Slaughtered

Not Permissible

Not Permissible

 

1 Some Ulama hold that this type of gelatine is also not permissible. Therefore, caution should be exercised.

 If metamorphosis’s (Qalb-ul-Mahiyat) takes place, gelatine would be halal (permissible). However, Darul-Ifta does not agree that metamorphosis’s takes place. Below is an article written by Muhammad Ansar Husain Nadwi (B.Tech. Chem. (Spl. in Leather), M.C.A.):

 

 Why the making of gelatine cannot be considered Qalb-ul-Mahiyat in the Shariah.

 

 Gelatine is nothing but raw collagen dissolved in hot water. Collagen is a structural protein found in all animals. It constitutes approximately 90-95% of the total corium of an animal skin. During the manufacture of gelatine, the hair, flesh, nerves, veins, sweat glands, albumins and other proteins are removed from the skins by means of very dilute solutions of acids (approximately 1-5%) or alkalis to leave only the corium layer of the skin. This skin is then dissolved in hot water to yield gelatine. Collagen which is present in the skin remains collagen itself in its essence even after the treatment with acid or alkali. 

 It is known that the collagen constitutes 90-95% of the corium layer of the skin. Now if the source of the skin is an animal which is Najis-ul-Ain then this 95% part of its skin is also Najis-ul-Ain. This means that during the manufacture of gelatine this Najasah remains in its original form until the skins are ready for boiling. After heating this collagen in water it is converted to gelatine. So the main change occurs during the heating process. Now since the mere boiling of Najis-ul-Ain substance in water is not considered

Qalb-ul-Mahiyat in the Islamic Shariah therefore the change of collagen to gelatine cannot be considered Qalb-ul-Mahiyat.

 

 NB:

 

  1. If gelatine is manufactured in such a way whereby metamorphosis’s takes place then the ruling will change accordingly.

 

  1. The fiqhi principle of umoom balwa (public consumption) could be considered based on need.

 

البحر الرائق - (ج 1 / ص 104)

 وفيه (السراج الوهاج) مسألة جلد الميتة بعد الدباغ هل يجوز أكله إذا كان جلد حيوان مأكول اللحم قال بعضهم نعم ؛ لأنه طاهر كجلد الشاة المذكاة وقال بعضهم : لا يجوز أكله ، وهو الصحيح لقوله تعالى { حرمت عليكم الميتة } ، وهذا جزء منها  { وقال عليه السلام في شاة ميمونة رضي الله تعالى عنها إنما يحرم من الميتة أكلها مع أمره لهم بالدباغ والانتفاع } ، وأما إذا كان جلد ما لا يؤكل كالحمار ، فإنه لا يجوز أكله إجماعا ؛ لأن الدباغ فيه ليس بأقوى من الذكاة وذكاته لا تبيحه فكذا دباغه .

 

 

أحكام القرآن للجصاص - (ج 1 / ص 140)

باب جلود الميتة إذا دبغت

 قوله تعالى إنما حرم عليكم الميتة والدم وقوله تعالى قل لا أجد فيما أوحي إلي محرما على طاعم يطعمه إلا أن يكون ميتة أو دما يقتضي تحريم الميتة بجميع أجزائها وجلدها من أجزائها لأنه قد حله الموت بدلا من الحياة التي كانت فيه إلا أن قوله على طاعم يطعمه قد دل على الاقتصار بالتحريم على ما يتأتى فيه الأكل وقد بين النبي ص - هذا المعنى في جلد الميتة بعد الدباغ بقوله إنما حرم أكلها وإنما حرم لحمها

 

 

 

المحيط البرهاني للإمام برهان الدين ابن مازة - (ج 1 / ص 390)

وفي «نوادر إبراهيم» عن محمد في حمار وقع في الملاحة ومات وترك حتى صار ملحاً أكل الملح، وقال أبو يوسف: لا يؤكل، وكذلك رماد عذرة أحرقت وصلى عليه على هذا الاختلاف، وحكى أبو عصمة: خشبة لو أصابها بول فاحترقت ووقع رمادها في بئر قال أبو يوسف رحمه الله يفسد الماء، وقال محمد رحمه الله: لا يفسد.

 

المحيط البرهاني للإمام برهان الدين ابن مازة - (ج 8 / ص 56)

وفي «مختلفات الفقيه أبي الليث»: إذا ماتت دجاجة وخرج منها بيضة؛ جاز أكلها عند أبي حنيفة رضي الله عنه اشتد قشرها أو لم يشتد، ويجوز استعمال انفحة الميت عند أبي حنيفة مائعة كانت أو جامدة، وهي طاهرة عنده على كل حال، وعندهما إن كانت مائعة فهي نجسة فلا تستعمل، وإن كانت جامدة تغسل وتستعمل.

And Allah Knows Best

http://askimam.org/fatwa/fatwa.php?askid=dd58b323a7f063825d977f54d8fbd99f

 

Rennet can either be microbial (plant based) or animal based. Hereunder is the ruling of the Darul Iftaa regarding animal based rennet (Prepared by Mufti Ehzaz Ajmeri):

Shar’ee Ruling for animal rennet

The practice of making cheese is very ancient and was done well before the time of Rasulullah (Sallalahu Alaihi Wasallam).  Cheese was made for the reason that it was a means of preserving food which could last for a long period of time. Rasulullah (Sallalahu Alaihi Wasallam) himself was presented cheese made by the Persians (the Magians) which he ate.

 

The Shar’ee ruling of rennet is that if it is derived from an unlawful animal, then the rennet will be unlawful.  Thus rennet extracted from pigs and other non-lawful animals will not be lawful to consume.

 

If the animal is lawful and slaughtered in accordance to Shariah, then the rennet will be lawful to consume.

 

As for rennet extracted from lawful animals that are not slaughtered in accordance to Shariah, there is a difference of opinion between Imam Abu Hanifa and his two students, Imam Abu Yusuf and Imam Muhammad.  All three Jurists agree that rennet itself is pure.  However, Imam Abu Yusuf and Imam Muhammad state the rennet is in contact with the liquids of the stomach which become impure upon death of the animal if not slaughter in accordance to Shariah.  Therefore, if the rennet is in solid from, it is possible to purify is by washing it.  If it is liquid form, it is not possible to purify it and will be impure.  Imam Abu Hanifa states that the liquids of the stomach do not become impure upon the death of the animal, therefore the rennet will be pure regardless if its slaughter in accordance to Shariah or not. 

 

The ruling in Hanafi Fiqh is giving upon the view of Imam Abu Hanifa, therefore if the rennet is extracted from lawful animals it is lawful to consume, regardless if it is slaughtered in accordance to Shariah or not.

 

And Allah Knows Best

http://askimam.org/fatwa/fatwa.php?askid=dc6c4c42f4d41e2a8cefb422abf9dc04

 

Other ingredients such as glycerol will be permissible if derived from plant, vegetable, or synthetic sources. They will not be permissible if derived from animal sources.

And Allah knows best

Wassalamu Alaikum

Ml. Asif Umar,
Student Darul Iftaa

Checked and Approved by:

Mufti Ebrahim Desai
Darul Iftaa

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