Category: Eid
Fatwa#: 15869
Asked Country: Saudi Arabia

Answered Date: Nov 18,2007

Title: Here in Saudi Arabia we celebrated eid ul fitr on friday. Regarding Jumma prayer some of our country people were saying that we should had perform juhr instead of juma prayer ...

Question

Assalamu Alaikum. Here in we celebrated eid ul fitr on friday. Regarding Jumma prayer some of our country people were saying that we should had perform juhr instead of juma prayer according to the local fukaha. In support of this they provided me the following documents. As I'm not with Arabic background, i could not got all the adequate learnings from here. I need English translation and the Hanafi fatwa regarding this.

This is the documentation you requested for the EID and Jumma prayer related ....... Sorry in arabic. Ask someone to translate it.................

فتوى اللجنة الدائمة في ما إذا وافق يوم العيد يوم الجمعة

رقم 21160 وتاريخ 8/11/1420 هـ

الحمد لله وحده، والصلاة والسلام على من لا نبي بعده وعلى آله وصحبه .. أما بعد :

فقد كثر السؤال عما إذا وقع يوم عيد في يوم جمعة فاجتمع العيدان : عيد الفطر أو الأضحى مع عيد الجمعة التي هي عيد الأسبوع، هل تجب صلاة الجمعة على من حضر صلاة العيد أم يجتزئ بصلاة العيد ويصلى بدل الجمعة ظهراً، وهل يؤذن لصلاة الظهر في المساجد أم لا؟ إلى آخر ما حصل عنه السؤال، فرأت اللجنة الدائمة للبحوث العلمية والإفتاء إصدار الفتوى الآتية :

الجواب : في هذه المسألة أحاديث مرفوعة وآثار موقوفة منها :

1- حديث زيد بن أرقم رضي الله عنه أن معاوية بن أبي سفيان رضي الله عنه سأله : ((هل شهدت مع رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم عيدين اجتمعا في يوم واحد؟ قال : نعم، قال : كيف صنع؟ قال : صلى العيد ثم رخص في الجمعة، فقال : من شاء أن يصلي فليصل)). رواه أحمد، وأبو داود، والنسائي، وابن ماجه، والدارمي، والحاكم في (المستدرك) وقال : ((هذا حديث صحيح الإسناد ولم يخرجاه، وله شاهد على شرط مسلم)). ووافقه الذهبي، وقال النووي في (المجموع) : ((إسناده جيد)).

2- وشاهده المذكور هو حديث أبي هريرة رضي الله عنه أن رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم قال :((قد اجتمع في يومكم هذا عيدان، فمن شاء أجزأه من الجمعة، وإنا مجمعون)). رواه الحاكم كما تقدم، ورواه أبو داود، وابن ماجه، وابن الجارود، والبيهقي، وغيرهم.

3- وحديث ابن عمر رضي الله عنهما قال : ((اجتمع عيدان على عهد رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم فصلى بالناس ثم قال : من شاء أن يأتي الجمعة فليأتها ومن شاء أن يتخلف فليتخلف)). رواه ابن ماجه، ورواه الطبراني في (المعجم الكبير) بلفظ : ((اجتمع عيدان على عهد رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم : يوم فطر وجمعة، فصلى بهم رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم العيد، ثم أقبل عليهم بوجهه فقال : يا أيها الناس إنكم قد أصبتم خيراً وأجراً وإنا مجمعون، ومن أراد أن يجمع معنا فليجمع، ومن أراد أن يرجع إلى أهله فليرجع)).

4- وحديث ابن عباس رضي الله عنهما أن رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم قال : ((اجتمع عيدان في يومكم هذا فمن شاء أجزأه من الجمعة وإنا مجمعون إن شاء الله)). رواه ابن ماجه، وقال البوصيري : ((إسناده صحيح ورجاله ثقات)). انتهى.

5- ومرسل ذكوان بن صالح قال : ((اجتمع عيدان على عهد رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم يوم جمعة ويوم عيد فصلى ثم قام، فخطب الناس، فقال : قد أصبتم ذكراً وخيراً وإنا مجمعون، فمن أحب أن يجلس فليجلس -أي في بيته- ومن أحب أن يجمع فليجمع)). رواه البيهقي في السنن الكبرى.

6- وعن عطاء بن أبي رباح قال :((صلى بنا ابن الزبير في يوم عيد في يوم جمعة أول النهار ثم رحنا إلى الجمعة فلم يخرج إلينا، فصلينا وحداناً، وكان ابن عباس بالطائف فلما قدمنا ذكرنا ذلك له، فقال أصاب السنة)). رواه أبو داود، وأخرجه ابن خزيمة بلفظ آخر وزاد في آخره : ((قال ابن الزبير : رأيت عمر بن الخطاب إذا اجتمع عيدان صنع مثل هذا)).

7- وفي صحيح البخاري رحمه الله تعالى وموطأ الإمام مالك رحمه الله تعالى عن أبي عبيد مولى ابن أزهر قال أبو عبيد : ((شهدت العيدين مع عثمان بن عفان، وكان ذلك يوم الجمعة، فصلى قبل الخطبة ثم خطب، فقال : يا أيها الناس إن هذا يوم قد اجتمع لكم فيه عيدان، فمن أحب أن ينتظر الجمعة من أهل العوالي فلينتظر، ومن أحب أن يرجع فقد أذنت له)).

8- وعن علي بن أبي طالب رضي الله عنه قال لما اجتمع عيدان في يوم : ((من أراد أن يجمع فليجمع، ومن أراد أن يجلس فليجلس)). قال سفيان : ((يعني يجلس في بيته)). رواه عبدالرزاق في المصنف ونحوه عند ابن أبي شيبة.

وبناء على هذه الأحاديث المرفوعة إلى النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم وعلى هذه الآثار الموقوفة عن عدد من الصحابة رضي الله عنهم وعلى ما قرره جمهور أهل العلم في فقهها، فإن اللجنة تبين الأحكام الآتية :

1- من حضر صلاة العيد فيرخص له في عدم حضور صلاة الجمعة، ويصليها ظهراً في وقت الظهر، وإن أخذ بالعزيمة فصلى مع الناس الجمعة فهو أفضل.

2- من لم يحضر صلاة العيد فلا تشمله الرخصة، ولذا فلا يسقط عنه وجوب الجمعة، فيجب عليه السعي إلى المسجد لصلاة الجمعة، فإن لم يوجد عدد تنعقد به صلاة الجمعة صلاها ظهراً.

3- يجب على إمام مسجد الجمعة إقامة صلاة الجمعة ذلك اليوم ليشهدها من شاء شهودها ومن لم يشهد العيد إن حضر العدد التي تنعقد به صلاة الجمعة وإلا فتصلى ظهرا.

4- من حضر صلاة العيد وترخص بعدم حضور الجمعة فإنه يصليها ظهراً بعد دخول وقت الظهر.

5- لا يشرع في هذا الوقت الأذان إلا في المساجد التي تقام فيها صلاة الجمعة، فلا يشرع الأذان لصلاة الظهر ذلك اليوم.

6- القول بأن من حضر صلاة العيد تسقط عنه صلاة الجمعة وصلاة الظهر ذلك اليوم قول غير صحيح، ولذا هجره العلماء وحكموا بخطئه وغرابته، لمخالفته السنة وإسقاطه فريضةً من فرائض الله بلا دليل، ولعل قائله لم يبلغه ما في المسألة من السنن والآثار التي رخصت لمن حضر صلاة العيد بعدم حضور صلاة الجمعة، وأنه يجب عليه صلاتها ظهراً والله تعالى أعلم. وصلى الله على نبينا محمد وآله وصحبه وسلم.

اللجنة الدائمة للبحوث العلمية والإفتاء

• الرئيس : عبدالعزيز بن عبدالله بن محمد آل الشيخ.

• عضو : عبدالله بن عبدالرحمن الغديان.

• عضو : بكر بن عبدالله أبو زيد.

• عضو : صالح بن فوزان الفوزان.

Answer

In the name of Allah, Most Gracious, Most Merciful

Assalaamu `alaykum waRahmatullahi Wabarakatoh

According to the Hanafi, Shaaf'ee and Maaliki Madhab, if Eid falls on a Friday, then the Eid Salaat and Khutbah will not suffice for Jummu'ah. The jurists have ruled that these are two different commandments and cannot be combined under any circumstance. (I'laaus Sunan vol.8 pg.92)

According to the Hambali Madhab, we have managed to trace a view of Imaam Ahmad ibn Hambal (RA) who says that the Eid Salaat will suffice for the Jummu'ah, hence, after the Eid Salaat, the next Salaat that a person will have to perform is the Asr Salaat on that Friday. (Tahtaawi pg.288). The Ahaadith that were mentioned by the Imaam are the very same ones which the Hambalis use to support their Madhab. Before answering these Ahaadith, we need to understand a few things which are of vital importance.

There are four authentic sources in Deen from which any Mas-ala (rule) must be established. These are Qur'aan, Hadith, Ijmaa (consensus) and Qiyaas (analogy). As long as a Mas-ala is established by anyone of these four sources, it will be considered to be part of our Deen. It is not necessary for a Mas-ala to be established only by Qur'aan and/or Hadith. The Qur'aan and Hadith mention guidelines and fundamental laws from which the expert jurists extract and derive various Masaail. It is not the work of any ordinary person to 'glance' at verses of the Qur'aan or Hadith and then draw up his own conclusions. This is the work of the experts. The four great Imaams had sound knowledge of every branch of Deen which made them qualify to extract different Masail after deep study and research into the Qur'aan and Hadith. It is, therefore, Waajib and compulsory for us to follow them in understanding our Deen. Similarly, a person is not allowed to follow his own desires by sometimes following one Imaam and at times another. It is Waajib to follow one Imaam in all his verdicts.

Now that we have understood the above, our subject matter is 'will Eid Salaat suffice for Jummu'ah?' We must understand that the obligation of Jummu'ah is explicitly mentioned and established by the Qur'aan, the strongest of all proofs is Qur'aan. One who denies any verse of the Qur'aan will become a Kaafir. On the other hand, the obligation of Eid Salaat is established through Hadith. Undoubtedly, the Hadith is a very strong proof, but of a lower degree than Qur'aan. One who denies something that is established through Hadith will not become a Kaafir. Keeping this in mind, even a person of little understanding will be able to come up to this simple conclusion that how can something that is proven from Hadith have so much of power and strength that it totally cancels something that is clearly and explicitly proven from the Qur'aan? How can the Eid Salaat abrogate the obligation of Jummu'ah?

Furthermore, there are a few Ahaadith (as mentioned by the Imaam) which outwardly show the permissibility of missing Jummu'ah when Eid falls on a Friday. These Ahaadith have slight variations but the gist of all is similar. As an example, to understand this Mas-ala properly we will look at one narration: Hadhrat Abu Hurayra (Radhiallaahu Anhu) reports that (on Friday, the day of Eid), Nabi (Sallallaahu Alayhi Wasallam) addressed all his companions saying, 'Today, two Eids have gathered together (Eid and Jummu'ah). Whosoever from you wishes, then this Salaat (Eid) will suffice him for Jummu'ah. We will soon gather again if Allah wills.' (Ibn Maajah pg.93)

Firstly, the Muhadditheen who are the esperts in the field of Hadith have mentioned that the authenticity of these narrations is disputed. However, even if we have to accept the authenticity of these narrations, then another answer is that during the time of Nabi (Sallallaahu Alayhi Wasallam), people from outside the city of Madinah living in the farmlands and villages, used to come to Madinah and gather for the Eid Salaat. At this point, we have to remember that just as how Eid Salat is not Waajib on those living out of the city, on farms, villages, etc. similarly, Jummu'ah is also not Waajib on them. (Tahtaawi pg.288)

These bedouins and villagers who come to Madina came on their own will out of joy and happiness, being the day of Eid. The Eid Salaat, as we know, is performed a little after sunrise in the morning. It was, therefore, difficult for these villagers to stay behind in the city after performing the Eid Salaat and wait for Jummu'ah. This is what is being referred to in these narrations. Looking at all these narrations, with slight variations, one narrations says that Nabi (Sallallaahu Alayhi Wasallam) said, 'Whomsoever wishes he may perform Jummu'ah Salaat and whosoever wishes he may return.' Nabi (Sallallaahu Alayhi Wasallam) was addressing the bedouins and villagers here because, for them to stay behind till Jummu'ah was a long wait and would be difficult for them. Since Jummua'h was not Waajib on them, Nabi (Sallallaahu Alayhi Wasallam) said to them that if they wished to return to their farmlands, they are at will to do so. The proof to say that this law was said only for the bedouins is that in the first narration of Abu Hurayra (Radhiallaahu Anhu), Nabi (Sallallaahu Alayhi Wasallam) said, 'We will soon gather again if Allah wills', i.e. here Nabi (Sallallaahu Alayhi Wasallam) addressing the people of the city says to them that very soon we will be gathering for Jummu'ah. Therefore, the standard answer to all these narrations is that Nabi (Sallallaahu Alayhi Wasallam) did give permission to miss Jummu'ah if Eid falls on a Friday but this permission was only for the bedouins because Jummu'ah was not Waajib on them at all in the first place. In order to substantiate this even more further, we will look at another narration. Hadhrat Uthmaan (Radhiallaahu Anhu) in his time, once addressed the congregation after the Eid Salaat which also fell on a Friday. He said to them, 'Whomsoever from amongst the villagers wishes to wait for Jummu'ah, then he may do so and whomsoever wishes to return then I have granted him permission.' (Muwatta pg.165)

Look at this narration. It is clearer than broad daylight that this permission was only for the villagers. Furthermore, in this narration, Hadhrat Uthmaan made this statement in front of a large gathering of great Sahaaba (Radhiallaahu Anhum). If this permission was general and included the people of the city also, then the Sahaaba would have opposed and raised objections immediately against Hadhrat Uthmaan (Radhiallaahu Anhu) as to why was he granting special permission only for the Bedouins and not for the people of the city. In view of the above, and in brief, we will say that if we do accept these narrations to be authentic then too the permission to skip Jummu'ah and suffice on Eid Salaat was only for the villagers simply because Jummu'ah was not Waajib upon them.

Moulana Asad Haffejee
STUDENT: DARUL IFTA

CHECKED AND APPROVED CORRECT:
Mufti Ebrahim Desai (Head: Darul Ifta); Mufti Muhammad Kadwa (Darul Ifta);
Moulana Muhammad Haroon Abbassommar (Faculty of Specialty in Hadith) 

Darul Iftaa, Madrassah In'aamiyyah

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