Category: Beliefs
Fatwa#: 15228
Asked Country: South Africa

Answered Date: May 20,2007

Title: Is all shia Kafir .If not what makes them kafir or how can i identify if he is kafir.


I recently found out my friend is a shia he proposed to my wifes cousin and told her family that he has imamat and he is a shia  my wifes cousin is sunni .Since then i decided not to be friends with him i dont talk to him. he and my wifes cousin is not allowed to come to my house and his 1st wife is also not allowed . ive read alot about shia and its alwasy said to 1st find out if they are kafir.
1)Is all shia Kafir .If not what makes them kafir or how can i identify if he is kafir.
2)by cutting myself off  from him and not allowing him to enter my home am i commiting a sin .
3) Someone told me that shias is muslims is this true


In the name of Allah, Most Gracious, Most Merciful

Assalaamu `alaykum waRahmatullahi Wabarakatoh

Firstly, hereunder are the criteria for declaring someone a non-Muslim:

  1. When a person openly calls himself a non-Muslim, i.e. he accepts that he is a Christian, Jew, Hindu, etc.
  2. When a person negates, through his words or actions, something unanimously proven through Quran and Hadith. He will not be regarded a Muslim even though he claims to be one.

Jawahirul Fiqh Vol:1 Pg:23 (Maktabah Darul Uloom Karachi)

Secondly, although the Shias claim that they are Muslims, most of them have beliefs that negate the clear cut principles of Islam. Some of these beliefs are listed below:

1.      They regard the Quran to be incomplete, and say that most of the Quran has been changed.

2.      They regard most of the senior Sahabah (Radiyallahu Anhum), including the first three Khalifas, as murtads (those who have left the fold of Islam).

3.      They regard the status of their twelve Imams to be higher than the status of the Ambiya (Alaihim Assalaatu Wassalaam).

Aaapke Masaail aur Unka Hal Vol:1 Pg:188 (Maktabah Bayyinat)

Thereafter, Shias are categorised into three groups in regards to the ruling they fall under:

1.      Those about whom it is certain that they negate the principles of Islam. Such Shias will be regarded as non-Muslims even if they do claim otherwise. Shias have the habit of taqiyyah (i.e. they regard it virtuous to lie in order to safeguard their beliefs); therefore, their word will not be accepted, if reliable sources prove otherwise.

It is not permissible to have inter-marriages with such Shias, Janazah Salaah will not be performed upon their deceased, the meat from the animals slaughtered by them will not be halaal and all other laws confined to Muslims will not apply to them.  

2.      Those who do not negate any principles of Islam, but have a difference of opinion with the Muslims on saying that Ali (Radiyallahu Anhu) was the most superior amongst all the Sahabah (Radiyallahu Anhum). Such Shias will not be regarded as non-Muslims, but they will still be regarded as fasiqs (those who transgress the laws of Islam openly).

The laws confined to Muslims will apply on them, but it will not be advisable to have inter-marriages with them. 

3.      Those whose beliefs cannot be confirmed. They will not be regarded as Muslims nor will they be regarded as non-Muslims.

As a matter of precaution, inter-marriages with them will not be permissible and the meat from the animals slaughtered by them will not be halaal.

Jawaahirul Fiqh Vol:1 Pg:59-63 (Maktabah Darul Uloom Karachi)

As far as ties with Shias are concerned, it is not permissible to have close friendship with them. However, Islam encourages Muslims to have good conduct with them, and show good character.

And Allah knows best


Ml. M. Jawed Iqbal,
Student Darul Iftaa

Checked and Approved by:

Mufti Ebrahim Desai
Darul Iftaa

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