Category: Schools of Fiqh
Fatwa#: 15036
Asked Country: South Africa

Answered Date: Apr 04,2007

Title: At the time of wisal (death) or before any Indication about any person that he will be a khalifa After me?

Question

Kindly explain about some questions

1.    Is namaz-e-janaza of hazrat muhammad pbuh was Paid ot noy if paid who? And how many people join his Furnel 

2.    At the time of wisal (death) or before any Indication about any person that he will be a khalifa After me

3.    When we see the muslim hsitory (just when Announce the wisal (death) of  Muhammad pbuh) the Muslim umma divided in three groups, one group of Hazrat Abubker/hazrat omer,second group with abu Ubaida and third group was engaged for ghusal of Muhmmmad pbuh, history show the dilogue of first and Second group regarding on the khilafat, now please Tell the first khalifa was elected trhough some people Not all it will call democrecy, when the first khalifa Was on death bed he nominated one person as a khalifa It will call (malookiyat)& when the second khalifa was

On death bed he make six person shoora for third Khalifa so the way of election of all three khalifa Were different, its mean they were not islami khalifa Its was a totally system of rulling

The question rais now that khilafat is not a part of Iman, its a totally way of rulling, if we dont believe On first to fourth khalifa (khulfa-e-rashdeen) then Our aqeeda will be correct or not, if not then why ?

Answer

Assalaamu `alaykum waRahmatullahi Wabarakatoh

In the name of Allah, Most Gracious, Most Merciful

1.  The accepted view of the majority of the Ulema is that the Janazah Salah was read on Rasulullah (Sallalahu Alaihi Wasallam) individually.  A group of Sahabah used to enter the room and pray their Salah and walk out.  Then the next group would enter.  Like this everyone prayed Janazah Salah.  .  Ibn Majh in his Sunnan narrates:

 

قال فلما فرغوا من جهازه يوم الثلاثاء وضع على سريره في بيته ثم دخل الناس على رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم أرسالا يصلون عليه حتى إذا فرغوا أدخلوا النساء حتى إذا فرغوا أدخلوا الصبيان ولم يؤم الناس على رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم أحد

Ibn Abbas says, “After the Sahaba completed the burial preparation on Tuesday, Rasullah was put on a bed in his house.  People entered in groups and prayed Janazah Salah on Rasulullah (Sallalahu Alaihi Wasallam).  When they finished, the women entered, when they were finished, the children entered.  No one lead the people in congregation for the Janazah of Rasulullah (Sallalahu Alaihi Wasallam).

Qazi Aayadh has said:

والصحيح الذي عليه الجمهور أنهم صلوا عليه فرادى ، فكان يدخل فوج يصلون فرادى ثم يخرجون ، ثم يدخل فوج آخر فيصلون كذلك ، ثم دخلت النساء بعد الرجال ثم الصبيان

The correct view in which the majority of the Ulema are on is that they performed janazah Salah on him individually.  A group used to enter and pray individually, then they leave and another group enters and prays likewise.  Then the women entered after the men.  Then the children entered. (Sharah Muslim of Nawawi)

2.  Rasulullah (Sallalahu Alaihi Wasallam) did indicate who should be the Khalifa after him through many ways.  A few of them are as follow:

 

A)

أن رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم أتته امرأة فكلمته في شيء وأمرها بأمر فقالت أرأيت يا رسول الله إن لم أجدك قال فإن لم تجديني فائتي أبا بكر - قال أبو عيسى هذا حديث صحيح غريب من هذا الوجه

A woman came to Rasullah (Sallalahu Alaihi Wasallam) and discussed with him about something.  Rasullah (Sallalahu Alaihi Wasallam) commanded her about something particular.  She said, “What if I do not find you (afterwards)?”  Rasullah (Sallalahu Alaihi Wasallam) said, “If you do not find me then go to Abu Bakr. (Tirmidhi)

 

 

B)

عن ابن عباس قال خرج رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم في مرضه الذي مات فيه عاصب رأسه بخرقة فقعد على المنبر فحمد الله وأثنى عليه ثم قال إنه ليس من الناس أحد أمن علي في نفسه وماله من أبي بكر بن أبي قحافة ولو كنت متخذا من الناس خليلا لاتخذت أبا بكر خليلا ولكن خلة الإسلام أفضل سدوا عني كل خوخة في هذا المسجد غير خوخة أبي بكر – رواه البخارى

Rasulullah (Sallalahu Alaihi Wasallam) in his fatal illness came out with a piece of cloth tied round his head and sat on the pulpit. After thanking and praising Allah he said, "There is no one who had done more favor to me with life and property than Abu Bakr bin Abi Quhafa. If I were to take a Khalil, I would certainly have taken Abu- Bakr but the Islamic brotherhood is superior. Close all the small doors in this mosque except that of Abu Bakr. (Bukhari)

C)

عن عائشة قالت قال لي رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم في مرضه ادعي لي أبا بكر أباك وأخاك حتى أكتب كتابا فإني أخاف أن يتمنى متمن ويقول قائل أنا أولى ويأبى الله والمؤمنون إلا أبا بكر
 

A'isha reported Rasulullah (Sallalahu Alaihi Wasallam) in his (last) illness asked me to call Abu Bakr, her father, and her brother, so that he might write a document, for he feared that someone else might be desirous (of succeeding him) and that some claimant may say: I have better claim to it, whereas Allah and the Believers do not substantiate the claim of anyone but that of Abu Bakr.

 

D)

Abu bakr (Radhiyallahu Anhu) was made the Imam for Salah in the absence of Rasullah (Sallalahu Alaihi Wasallam) as well as during the sickness of Rasullah (Sallalahu Alaihi Wasallam).  Salah is one of the fundamental duties in Islam.  He who is made the Khalifa in Salah is most fitting to be Khalifa in other responsibilities.

3.  Khilafat is a crucial part of Islam.  Through Khilafat there is system and many commandments of Allah are established through Khalifa.  Rasulullah (Sallalahu Alaihi Wasallam) has said:

 

فعليكم بما عرفتم من سنتي وسنة الخلفاء الراشدين المهديين عضوا عليها بالنواجذ

Upon you (is incumbent) my Sunnah and the Sunnah of the Khulafa Al-Rashideen.  Hold firmly on to it. (Ibn Majh, Ahmed,Al-Bayhaqi, Al-Hakim, Al-Tabrani, Al-Darami, Ibn Hibban, Tahawi,).

One can see the importance of Khilafat that Rasulullah (Sallalahu Alaihi Wasallam) has ordered us to strictly adhere to His sunnah and the sunnah of the rightly-guided Khalifas.  It is a creed of the Ahle Sunnah wal Jamah to believe in the righteous Khalifas and their sequence.  Imam Tahawi in Aqidah Al-Tahawi writes:

 

ونثبت الخلافة بعد رسو ل الله صلى الله عليه وسلم أولا لأبي بكر الصديق رضي الله عنه، تفضيلا له وتقديما على جميع الأمة، ثم لعمر بن الخطاب رضي الله عنه، ثم لعثمان بن عفان رضي الله عنه، ثم لعي بن أبي طالب رضي الله عنه. وهو الخلفاء الراشدون والأئمة المهديون

We assert that the first Khilatfat after the demise of Rasulullah (Sallalahu Alaihi Wasallam) was that of Abu Bakr as-Siddiq, due to his pre-eminence and precedence over the entire Ummah.  He was rightly followed by ‘Umer bin al-Khattab, then Uthmaan bin Affan, then ‘Ali bin abu Talib Radhiyallahu Anhum.  They are the guiding and Guided Khalifas.

To say that the first three Khalifas are not Islamic Khalifas but a system of ruling is incorrect and going against the words of Rasullah (Sallalahu Alaihi Wasallam).  In a narration, Rasulullah has said:

الخلافة بعدي ثلاثون سنة ، ثم تكون ملكا (اصحاب السنن و صححه ابن حبان)

Khilafat after me will be for thirty years.  Then there wll be monarchy.

The issue of Khilafat is clearly understood from the above hadith.  And in the narration mentioned above he is telling us that after me will be the Righteous Khalifas.  To state other wise is incorrect.

As regards to the method of electing a Khalifa, it is the consensus of the Ulema that a Khalifa can be appointed by different methods.

وقال النووي وغيره : أجمعوا على انعقاد الخلافة بالاستخلاف ، وعلى انعقادها بعقد أهل الحل والعقد لإنسان حيث لا يكون هناك استخلاف غيره ، وعلى جواز جعل الخليفة الأمر شورى بين عدد محصور أو غيره ، وأجمعوا على أنه يجب نصب خليفة ، وعلى أن وجوبه بالشرع لا بالعقل (النووى فى شرح مسلم)

 

 

1.  Ba’yah (pledge) of the general public as well the gentry. Abu Bakr Radhiyallahu Anhu became Khalifa through this method.  As mentioned earlier, Rasulullah (Sallalahu Alaihi Wasallam) had indicated that after me Abu Bakr is to be the Khalifa.  The Sahabah understanding this did not question the Khilafat of Abu Bakr when he was made Khalifa.

 

2.  The previous Khalifa makes Wasiyat (request after death) for a person.  Umer Radhiyallahu Anhu was made Khalifa through this method.  In reality, Abu Bakr did not choose Umer to succeed him out of his own will; instead he consulted the senior Sahabah about Umer.

Ibn Sa'd writes in his book al-Tãbaqât al-Kubrâ:

When Abû Bakr's illness intensified he called `Abd ar-Rahmân ibn `Awf and asked him: "Tell me about `Umar." `Abd ar-Rahmân replied: "There is nothing you can ask me about which you yourself are not better acquainted with." Aba Bakr said: "And if... [i.e. if I appoint him as my successor]?" `Abd ar-Rahmân said: "By Allâh, he is even better than what you think of him."

Then he called `Uthmân ibn `Affán and told him: "Tell me about `Umar." `Uthmân said: "You know him best." Abû Bakr said: "So according to that, Abû `Abdillâh... [i.e. so tell me how you know him.]" `Uthmân replied: "By Allâh, as far as I know him he is better person on the inside than what he is on the outside. There is amongst us no one better than him." Abû Bakr told him: "May Allâh have mercy upon you. By Allâh, if I was going to leave him I would not have passed you by."

Abu Bakr also consulted with Sa`îd ibn Zayd Abul-A'war, Usayd ibn alHudayr and other Muhâjirûn and Ansâr. Usayd said: "By Allâh, I regard him as the best one after you. He is pleased with what deserves pleasure, and angered at what calls for anger. What he hides is even better than what he shows. This matter can go into the hands of no one abler than him."

As is wont to happen, there were some people who were apprehensive of Sayyidunâ `Umar radiyallâhu 'anhu on account of his sternness. Their concerns were relayed to Sayyidunâ Abû Bakr radiyallâhu `anhu by some of the Sahâbah. The narration in Ibn Sa'd continues:

Some of the Sahâbah heard about Abû Bakr's private meetings with `Abd arRahmân and `Uthmân. They also came to Abû Bakr and their spokesman said to him: "What will you say to your Lord should He ask you about your appointment of `Umar over us despite knowing that he is so harsh." Abû Bakr [who was lying down] said: "Make me sit up. Are you trying to influence me by invoking the fear of Allah? May he perish who is guilty of injustice in this matter of yours! I will say: `O Allâh, I appointed the best of your people over them.' Tell this to who is behind you."

Sayyidunâ Abu Bakr radiyallâhu 'anhu was already sufficiently convinced that the majority of the Sahâbah were in favour of Sayyidunâ `Umar radiyallâhu `anhu. It was therefore that he dismissed the apprehensions of this minority. But the process was still not over. He called Sayyidunâ `Uthmân radiyallâhu `anhu and dictated to him the deed of appointment. Even this deed was not arbitrary. Before coming of effect it was subjected to the approval of the people. Ibn Sa'd continues:

Abû Bakr ordered him to seal the deed. He came out with the sealed document. With him was `Umar ibn al-Khattâb, Asîd ibn Sa'yah al-Qurazi and Usayd ibn Hudayr. `Uthmân said to the people: "Will you give bay'ah to him whose name is in this document?" They responded: "Yes."

Sayyidunâ Abu Bakr radiyallahu 'anhu, as ill as he was, presented himself to the people for the final ratification of the appointment:

Abû Bakr radiyallâhu `anhu appeared at the window of his house and addressed the people saying: "O people! I have appointed someone. Are you happy with that?" They replied: "We are happy, O khalîfah of Rasûlullâh." `Ali radiyallâhu `anhu stood up and said: "We are not happy, except if it is `Umar." Abû Bakr radiyallâhu `anhu said: "It is `Umar." Then they all accepted it, expressed their contentment with it, and gave their bay`ah. (Mualana Taha Karaan)

 

3.  The Khalifa is elected through a committee. (Umar Radhiyallahu Anhu appointed a committee to decide after his demise.) Ibn Battal says:

قال ابن بطال ما حاصله " أن عمر سلك في هذا الأمر مسلكا متوسطا خشية الفتنة " فرأى أن الاستخلاف أضبط لأمر المسلمين ، فجعل الأمر معقودا موقوفا على الستة لئلا يترك الاقتداء بالنبي صلى الله عليه وسلم وأبي بكر ، فأخذ من فعل النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم طرفا وهو ترك التعيين ، ومن فعل أبي بكر طرفا وهو العقد لأحد الستة وإن لم ينص عليه انتهى ملخصا

Umer (Radhiyallahu Anhu) adopted the middle path in fear of fitna.  The issue of election a Khalifa is more important for the concerns of the Ummah.  He made the issue resting on six people.  So that he may not leave following Rasulullah (Sallalahu Alaihi Wasallam) and Abu Bakr (Radhiyallahu Anhu),he took a part of Rasulullah (Sallalahu Alaihi Wasallam) approach and that is not to appoint anyone specifically.  And he took a part of Abu Bakr’s (Radhiyallahu Anhu) approach and appointed six people (to decide). (Fath Al-Bari)

In all the above mentioned ways, the Sahabah agreed to the method.  When choosing Abu Bakr, the Sahaba all agreed.  When Abu Bakr appointed Umer, the Sahabah agreed.  When Umer made a committee, the Sahaba agreed to this action.  To say that this was not correct is to say that the Sahaba all unanimously agreed on a wrong, which is far from meticulous.

And Allah knows best

Wassalam

Ml. Ehzaz Ajmeri,
Student Darul Iftaa

Checked and Approved by:

Mufti Ebrahim Desai
Darul Iftaa

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